Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Research Paper ExampleThey also serve to secure mesh traffic. Just like a Wide Area Network, it connects multiple sites and servers over a long distance. The most(prenominal) important aspect of a virtual(prenominal) private net income is its emphasis on privacy, because when a thickening estimator connects to the internet through a VPN, its initial IP address is replaced by the one provided for by the VPN providers. For Example, a persons physical location is Washington, but while using a virtual private network he appears to live in Brussels, this clearly shows that users obtain IP addresses from the area the VPN provides (Stewart 2011).In order to get access or connection into a virtual private network, one mustiness have a username and password, mostly provided for by the service provider. On a computer, a VPN client is unremarkably used, or you can access a special website, you enter your correct authentication details, then the computer exchanges information with the rem ote servers and once verification has taken place, connection happens and all the information and internet selective information is encrypted and secured from on lookers. Software developers have also developed applications for smart phones to also take advantages of accessing the internet safely through a VPN, by using certain protocols such as PPTP and L2TP/IPSec. Computers also uses PPTP VPN connections, OpenVPN and L2TP/IPSec protocols use an vindicated source software known as OpenVPN client and authentication details configured into a certification that you download and run on the client (Yuan & Strayer 2001).A virtual private network has many a(prenominal) protocols of which can be utilized to secure the flow of information over a public network with the only difference between these protocols being how each keeps the data safe and secure (Geier 2014).IP certification protocol (IPSec), is one of the major protocols used to obtain a secure connection over the internet, it is a combination of many
See description - Research Paper ExampleMedicare furnishes wellnesscare class to help such disadvant eldd financial situations of the elderly U.S. residents. The workforce pays taxes to the government throughout the employment period. This hive away money of the respective(prenominal) in the form of taxes is given back after 65 years of age independent of their current working status. While, the Medicaid delivers healthsecurity net to necessitous and vulnerable population, and are executed by individual State separately. Medicares senior enrollee can also be a part of Medicaid. Medicaid enrollees can employ additional cost benefits over Medicare for prescription drugs, diagnostic and preventive care, and eyeglasses (Nolo, 2010). The recipients of Medicare and Medicaid can overlap. In such cases, the entitled enrollee of Medicaid offers financial help for Medicare deductibles and the Medicare premium.As the global, political, social and environmental factors are charnging at fast pace, to each one federal program is facing ongoing challenges.These challenges are carried over and entire health care placement is trapped into vicious cycle. Financing of Medicare as well as Medicaid is the most emerging issue due to corollary effect of general aging of society, economic recession, and unemployment.Managed care is the major health service program incidental to the arrival of Medicare to reduce the cost of health care services for patients. Managed care plans are health insurance policy plans frequently involves unreasonable limits on visits with health care providers and medical facilities. But it no longer is viewed by most employers and federal and state governments as the primary means by which health care cost can be brought under control due to vested interest of individuals in Americas health care delivery system (Boyle & Callahan, 1995). Managed care system is connected with several legislative acts because of which it drew into joust to give best s ervice in the interests of patients. The clinicians,
Monday, April 29, 2019
Summa Theologica - Essay Example aid evidence of the liveence of God is based on the concept of efficient cause which means that iodin thing can only cause change to another. This will result in a concatenation of questioning the first cause, thus, the world of God is the answer. The third evidence that doubting Thomas presented is also based on the chain of causes. According to him, one thing owes existence to another which is based on the view of chance and necessity. This means that an objects existence is based on pre-existing things. He argued that all things exist due to a certain need by another and only God exists for His own cerebrate (Aquinas, 1996 Kretzmann and Stump, 1993).These three proofs can be contradicted by most contemporary theories of the existence of things. But in this suit Aquinas is theorizing the existence of God through scientific views. Faith is the main evidence in the existence of God since he is the first mover, the first cause and the one who e xists based on his own reason. Aquinass views on the existence of God though had been refuted by most philosophers specifically in the insurrection of the concepts of evolution and intelligent design. Basically evolution is the scientific view of the existence of the different entities, both support and non-living in the world as advocated by Charles Darwin. This is the main contradicting view against the religious views of creation. On the other hand, through the continuous study of the said issue, the rise of the concept of intelligent design occurred which is known to be the duo between the dickens concepts. It falls between the two concepts. It in fact intersects the two fields of study, experience and theology. Based on the said view, the universe existed due to intelligent causes such as natural selection. Thus, it unites the two views (Dembski, 2002). Although, experts from both sides are questioning the said view, the message of unity can be considered as an historic m erit.Other philosophers such
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Principles of Project Management - endeavor ExampleConsideration of the seek works of Rad & Levin (2006) reveals the fact that dispatch counselling should not be viewed as ad-hoc process rather issues like internal communication within organization, ethical dilemma among project team members regarding project deliverables, leadership of project manager, knowledge sharing etc significantly impact project caution methodologies. In such context, Melbourne (2003) stated that project managers play vital role in managing not scarcely system construction of the project attention but also control the effect of the above mentioned issues. In simple word, trustworthy level of skill attributes and competencies are required of a project manager in order to deliver successful project outcomes to client. It is evident from the arguments of above mentioned research scholars that success of project management significantly depends on people management, integration of organizational structu re, development of communication model, ethics etc while certain level of skill and capabilities of project manager is needed in order to achieve project deliverables. ... analyzing while of the project, budget estimation, developing draft of the project deliverables, planning, implementing the project plan, controlling the irregularities and finally closing the approach. Winch et al (2012) also argued that significant amount of symmetry exists between projects based management and organisational change process. However, Parker and Craig (2008) argued that project management can be temporary phase of the change management approach but it cannot be considered as robust measure of change process. For example, Parker and Craig (2008) and Parker et al. (2012) gave example of IT projects, construction projects where teams are creation formed in accord with client deliverables and project requirements and such teams are being dismantled after fulfilment of project objectives. At this p oint, a pertinent question may arise that whether people management is a temporary aspect in project management or not? To answer this question, the researcher will consider the research works of Eve (2007) which was designed for highlighting the importance of organizational factors in project management. Although, teams are being formed in temporary basis during a particular project but without people management, it becomes problematic for project leaders to achieve project objectives. Eve (2007) conducted research on project management data of companies like AT&T, Hewlett Packard, GM and IBM and found that companies use Project Management Maturity models (PMMM) to synchronize the organizational aspects with mechanical framework of project management. Korbel and Benedict (2007) gave system definition of Project Management Maturity models (PMMM) which focuses more than on benchmarking of performance and delivering value to customers. People play the role of
Saturday, April 27, 2019
The identification of elicits rights - Essay ExampleAt this point, it should be far-famed that there is no problem as of the capacity of Harry to proceed to the purchase since he is non minor nor he suffers from a mental illness (s.3 Sales of Goods Act of 1979, MacLeod 2002). When ordering the table, Harry mentions to the gross revenue assistant that he wants a table similar to that of the poster in the shops windowpane it is implied that the bed ordered should be of the same size, technical characteristics and colour as the bed illustrated in the particularized poster (s.13(1) SOGA, Curtis v Ghemical Cleaning and Dyeing Co Ltd 1951, Andrews v Hopkinson 1957) former(a)wise an issue of misrepresentation somewhat quality would exist (Cranston 2000, p.148) In accordance with the case study, that bed was grey therefore, Harry expected to watch a similar bed when making the order (s.13 (1) SOGA). At the same time, Harry picked a contribute from the shops catalogue and made the rele vant order. Again, the item ordered, the chair is defined through a photo of the item presented to the customer. This means that Harry did non have the chance to examine, closely, the size or the other qualities of the items ordered (Law Commission, 2009, p.9). He was only able to define their required characteristics through photographs. It should be noted that Harry did not explain to the vender the conclude of the goods, so the court could decide that the seller is not liable(p) for the fact that the products be not arrest for purpose (Reddy & Johnson 2011, p.22, Jewson Ltd v Leanne Teresa Boyhan 2004, BSS Group Plc v Makers (UK) Ltd (t/a assort Services) 2011). At this point, the following issues should be discussed a) whether the items were judge (s32 SOGA), and b) whether the items met the requirements of the law in ask to not fit for purpose products. The time framework available to Harry in order to make his claims should be also examined. In accordance with the Sal es of goods Act 1979, the time framework for the buyer to develop claims against the seller in regard to the items interchange is 28 days from the date of the sale (as such term is commonly added in contracts in order to define the reasonable time during which the right of the buyer to reject the goods sold is retained, s35(4) SOGA). Harrys rights, as derived from the specific sale, are active. Harry can approach the seller with a claim for faulty products within the period of 28 days from the date of the sale, meaning the date when the sale was completed, i.e. when the buyer accepted the goods (Chen-Wishart 2007, p.595). The period of 28 days had not passed it begins from the day that Harry checked the goods, in the context that the seller has to give to the buyer a reasonable time for checking the goods and Harry was absent which means he could not check the goods (s.35 SOGA, Law Commission, 2009, p.10). Also, the English courts have held that the silence of the buyer cannot be considered as acceptance of the goods sold (Felthouse v Bindley 1862, Hannah Blumenthal 1983). However, in order for the above claims to be valid, it needs to be proved that the products sold are not fit for purpose. The law, the Sales of goods Act 1979 (SOGA), sets the criteria under which a product is considered as not fit for purpose a) it does not match the description (s.13, SOGA), b) is not of satisfactory quality (s14.2 SOGA) and c)
Friday, April 26, 2019
Hw - Assignment ExampleSince 2004 the order has shown some average profits in only 2007. In the fear of entering bankruptcy, Kodak used immense patent judicial proceeding in their attempt to generate revenues (Mattioli, 2010). They got 838 million dollars from licensing of patents this also included resolvings and lawsuits against companies including LG, Samsung and their recent fight is with Apple. Patents are therefrom a way to protect companies from losing their profits entirely and to keep them safe from going bankruptcy.2. Kodak was a conjunction that brought new technology in photography and thus held a dominant place in the mart for a very long time. They had an advantage as their products were patented meaning no other company could use their invention to make any profits for twenty years. This implies that any company who uses their invention in the lead the expiry period would be facing a lawsuit from Kodak and would have to pay heavy settlement moneyfor patent infrin gement. The company is said to have been breathing its last breaths and is on the brink of bankruptcy. They have to redeem a reorganizational plan till the deadline of 15th February 2013 under the terms of the bankruptcy protection. For them till now their patents were either they had to regain their lost position as none of their other tactics seemed to work.3. As most of Kodaks patents expire, the company will have to come up with a reorganization plan that will pound it out of its lost position. According to Antonio Perez the Chairman and CEO of Kodak they are restructuring the company by rebalancing it towards packaging, functional and mercantile printing. They will use their competitive edge in deposition technology and material science on with their knowledge of digital imaging to capitalize on their prospects and market growth. Kodak had its patents on auction but the bids they veritable from Apple and Google were 150 million and 250 million billion dollars
Thursday, April 25, 2019
For chosen topic - Research make-up ExampleIn the higher levels of an org chart, the stakeholders usually benefit from the phased approach since it has been quicker to implement and has been able to step-up the efficiencies and enabled the organization in managing the risks that are associated with the customer relationship management implementation.For instance, considering the experience in a thumping financial warm of services that needed a replacement of the outdated Customer Relationship oversight system. Over several years the system had not yet been widely adopted by the employees in the firm which had offices in the U.S and U.K. the reasons behind this were quite typical that the mentioned that the CRM solution was not in a nonplus to produce up to the moment data and that as well, the perception within the functional limitation fasten to the user interface challenges resulted in frequent entry of similar information (Buttle 78). The firm was quite informed that it ne eded up to date technology that would be in a position to offer a foundation for growth as the firm expanded and the needs evolved accordingly.Successful building of user bankers acceptance has always been a significant challenge with Customer Relationship Management for which the users need much teach on tracking more granular of data. The tangled web designed for the data integration tho complicated the matter. Therefore, the solution to it would seemingly need to communicate with the internal databases, corporate directory and the external systems. The risk could slowly result in a sort of implementation that probably spends the entire organization for consecutive years. However, the firm responded by successfully lessening the effect in managing the scope of the project and in confidence star(p) the organization into change (Baran 56). This happened in adopting the phased approach to the implementation of the CRM solution.The first step of the implementation was a
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
An act of heroism - Essay object lessonIf a dog from the Humane Society is adopted, it gives them a second chance. Due to the volume of stray pets left field on the street, some Humane Societies still put dogs and cats to sleep. I cannot bear to think of dogs being killed, tho because of human error. The human error begins when a pet is not spade or neutered. Then when a pet becomes to much or unwanted, they are turned out on the streets due to human error. So I decided to visit the local Humane Society to find a new pet.I had decided a German Shepard mix, or maybe a lab would make the best pet. In the viewing room, dogs barked and howled. All that was present on the day I went were small and medium dogs. I did not find a dog that felt right. Dejectedly I went out of the viewing room, running into a Humane Society worker.He pointed me to the Big Dog and Small Dog rooms down the hallway. I walked to the Big Dog room. This room was three times the size of the viewing room. Around for ty cages were seamed up in four rows. German Shepards, labs, and other large dogs were in almost every cage. I walked up and down the aisles. One dog caught my eye. He looked like a fur ball sitting on a pillow. I knew if he was given a pillow, he was sick or expert had surgery. No one had picked up his card. I was not sure if I could take care of a large sick dog. However no other dog caught my eye. I decided not to situate the big dog.After I left the Humane Society without a dog, I felt guilty. My judgment kept going back to the large white and gray fur ball. After two days, I decided to go back. If the white and gray fur ball was still there, I would adopt him. When I went back to the Big Dog room, the white and gray fur ball was there. I grabbed his card and took it to the campaign desk.The worker told me this dog was in bad shape. He was an Alaskan Malamute. His fur was so matted that the workers could not tell if he was a boy or girl at first. He could not
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
The Insanity of organism Sane - Essay ExampleBoth of these writers shared the same experiences of being mad, cast out, and maltreated only when to unveil and uncover the true situations inside the moral institutions in the nineteenth century and the present time. These twain literary books are inspiring and reveal the continuity of how mental institutions have been dealing with the mental patients for centuries. Nellie Bly wrote hug drug Days in a Mad-house somewhere in 1887. She was a newspaper reporter tasks to expose the atrociousness and neglect among the mental patient in the mental institutions. For ten-spot days, Bly involuntarily committed to be locking to the Blackwells Island insane asylum as she is saying that My instructions were simply to go on with my change by reversal as soon as I felt that I was ready (Bly, N.). To be able to be admitted to the insane asylum, she had to check in a womens boarding facility after which she acted irregularly. This instance kind led the entire plan for Bly to enter the facility (Time Staff, 2009). Just like Nellie Bly, Norah Vincent is also a journalist, a abide immersion journalist who lets her self-lockup in the insane facility for ten days. Both of the two writers immersed in an insane facility. However, Bly involuntarily accepted the task being drawn to her while Vincent was required to be control at the asylum as the author narrated On the advice of her psychologist she committed herself to a mental institution (Vincent N. 2009). Moreover, after ten days, Vincent decided to get out of the asylum with the promised to her self not to get back again, as she said, I got home a wreck, and swore that, no matter how bad I felt, I would never willingly go into such a place again, never. (Vincent N, 2008). Bly was able to convince the authority of the asylum and be confined for ten days was well planned. Bly, at first, fabricated to be mildly insane and begin the upstanding process by convincing her roommat es as well as the owner by standing the whole night at the wall, talking a lot to never seen people, and doing strange things. The things she does were found out to be sufficient to be in front of the judge and as expected, recommended to stay inside the asylum where she had manifested the imperious and the vindictive rules in the asylum (Bly N. (2009). On the Contrary, Vincent was able to enter the asylum because she was diagnosed to have a mental illness that started trend back ten years ago. Vincents depression was developed to be a sickness until she had never any choice but to enter the asylum. Nevertheless, she battled her own problems and made it a way to discover and continue her pilgrim in writing and exposing what life she had gone through inside the asylum As her treatment and her symptoms improve, Vincent warms up to the idea that the bin might not be all bad, and she softens in her criticism (Vincent, N. 2008). The way she helps her self in battling her misfortunes h ave gone through the process of knowing her self, realizing where she was in, grasping the feelings near her situation, and how she can help her self to be out of the asylum, as Vincent states I spent four lost, fadeless days in lockup that first time in the bin, getting worse, weeping at the close windows, yelping for rescue through the pay phone in the soul-destroying dayroom.
Monday, April 22, 2019
Case study World Bank - Essay eccentricThe Forbes Capital Hospitality Index (FCHI) measures macroeconomic indicators like GDP growth and internationa contestationic trade, along with societal factors affecting investiture, including poverty, bureaucracy, technological advancement, and decomposition. (Ravindran)World Bank has been actively involved in setting the right video for economic development within countries on an international platform. There is a general agreement that corruption within the countrified can be controlled by taking active measures to involve civil societies, exactly the degree of involvement is still a matter of consideration. Social trade can make an primary(prenominal) contribution to the creation of atmosphere in the public life that discourages fraud and corruption (Kindra & Stapenburs, 1998) Social marketing can be used in public health campaigns (e.g., to reduce smoking and alcoholism, safe sex, and change magnitude physical fitness), environme ntal campaigns (e.g., fighting pollution, promoting recycling, saving water and power), education campaigns (to encourage literacy), and the protection of individual/ mathematical group rights (e.g., racial and gender equality, gay and lesbian rights).Societal marketing based on ethical and philanthropic principle can achieve this dynamic change within a society, community and a country by raising the awareness of the citizens about the costs of the corruption to the country, addressing the concern about institutions within a country, increasing understanding regarding the factors of corruption within public behavior. World bank has taken a morally good stand to change the international scene for more humane endeavors, its contribution id noteworthy and has been a source of admiration and inspiration for many other world forums in guiding their decisions related to international trend in growth and expansion.The premier business publication said As access to metropolis markets ar ound the world becomes commonplace for individual investors and multinational institutions alike, the race is on for countries to attract the foreign investment capital needed to fuel the engines of growth at home. Addressing this need for a one-stop reference, Forbes began with a list of principles employed by the US Chamber of Commerce when considering international investments. FORBES has listed Denmark, Finland, Iceland, the US, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Estonia, Ireland, and New Zealand as the top 10 countries in the world in terms of capital hospitality. (Ravindran)ACT-UTILITARIANISM drudgery is an advocate of Utilitarian principle, Mill was curiously impressed by the work of Jeremy Bentham. He agreed with Bentham when he argued in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and formula (1789), that the proper objective of all conduct and legislation is the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Mill became a Utilitarian and at the age of seventeen formed a discussion group called the utilitarian Society.Mill argues that the moral worth of actions is to be judged in terms of the consequences of those actions and our moral feelings often conflict with our inclinations of self-interest. He aimed to show humans the way the world is and how they could accommodate themselves to it and to one another. His aim was the improvement of humankind. His guide was the
Sunday, April 21, 2019
BAN - A Logic of Authentication - Essay ExampleAs a result, Borrows, Abadi and Needham formulated a system of logic of belief and action, to address these errors. The logic allows people to formally withdraw the beliefs of trustworthy distinguishies involved in these authentication protocols, thus uncovering subtleties, redundancies and flaws through an analysis of the protocols syntax and semantics. Borrows, Abadi and Needham fulfil four published protocols into account, in order to show how they illustrate the appropriateness of this logical method of analysis. barely how sound is the logic that they are proposing? How far tummy a vague and ambiguous logic calculate us? This paper aims to introduce the famous BAN (Borrows, Abadi and Needham) logic and its use on unmatched of the published protocols (i.e. Kerberos), to discuss the logics success, its successors, and to review the critiques made on the logic. This paper is based on the article A Logic of Authentication publis hed in 1989 by the authors Michael Burrows, Martin Abadi and Roger Needham, University of Cambridge. The paper was nominated for event in TOCS by the Program Committee for the ACM SIGOPS Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, December 1989. The three authors completed part of this work at Digital Equipment Corporation and part at the University of Cambridge. 2 Chapter 2 Introduction In this chapter a brief introduction to the basic principles of the BAN logic is discussed as well as a short section about earnest measure protocols. 2.1 An Introduction to Borrows, Abadi, Need- ham (BAN) Logic The BAN Logic is named aft(prenominal) Borrows, Abadi and Needham. The logic is, as they stated, a logic of belief and action. It contains no logical inversions on that pointfore it cannot be utilize to prove that a protocol is flawed. But when proof, that a protocol is correct, cannot be obtained, that protocol deserves to be inured with suspicion ?. In other words BAN logic does not aim to prove the security of a protocol it can only catch certain kinds of subtle errors, help us to fence about the protocol, and help us identify and formalize our assumptions and analysis. Details of the BAN logic such as the idealization of protocol transactions, along with the various inference rules, will be discussed on the later sections. The authors of A Logic of Authentication introduce the BAN logic to protocol designers whom they believe are inappropriately copy available techniques thus coming up with protocols containing many security flows. The authors explain the basic notation of the logic and five rules that are applied to analyze protocols. Afterwards, they move on to actually idealize different exist protocols to conclude that such a simple logic can capture subtle differences between protocols. If there is one thing that the authors forgot to mention, that would be the basic definitions of frequently used terms. So in this paper I will try my best to define th ose terms. 3 CHAPTER 2. INTRODUCTION 4 2.1.1 Security Protocols A security protocol usually uses cryptography to distribute messages, authenticate the communicating parties and protects data over an insecure network. It can be defined as a set of transactions or traces. Each transaction consists of a series of communication events, some of which are perhaps interleaved protocol runs. Every desirable
Summary most the give Boston tea party - Essay grammatical caseThe story talks about how the United States of America walked its way into the top of the western hemisphere and sett direct in a country that has become the most powerful nation in the world. Philbrick explained in this book that the issue of race, religion and violence has always taken center stage in American polity. Nathaniel Philbrck uses the compute of William Bradford and Benjamin Church to describe the story of the mayflower. The book is the story of a ship and its journey on a large and stormy sea into a land that nothing much was known about. mayflower talks about how the Pilgrims came to settle in New England, the risky ocean crossing that they embarked upon and the sharing of the startle of all Thanksgiving. He gives the true story of the Pilgrims and their tragic besides heroic experience at the ocean. Philbrick described how a group of Pilgrims endured the raging of the storms in order to find a ve ry suitable place to worship. The Mayflower ship clumsily moved by means of winds and storms for sixty-five days. According to Philbrick, For sixty-five days, the Mayflower had blundered her way through storms and headwinds, her bottom a shaggy pelt of seaweed and barnacles, her leaky decks spewing salt water onto her passengers devoted heads. (3). There were 102 humanness and 2 dogs in the ship and Phulbrick explained that they were not the usual group of colonists that people are familiar with. They were incomplete noblemen or servants, but a group of men, women and children who were ready to sacrifice their lives in order to have the presumption that they could worship their God as they pleased. The arguments that the Pilgrims put forward for embarking on such a deadly voyage was that God was in support of their emigration to America (Philbrick 259). Philbrick dedicated a chapter to Thanksgiving with a best account of the events of the feast that lasted for days. The people that took part in the Thanksgiving feast were 100 Pokanoket Indians and 50 colonists. Philbrick state that the Pilgrims did not originally arrive at Plymouth Rock as people have been made to believe. They first arrived at an Indian graveyard, the Pokanoket tribe had been hit by a strange plague that weakened legal age of their population and they did not have the strength to fight against the Pilgrims. The Pokanoket tribe had no other choice than to counterbalance peace with the Pilgrims. It is clear from the description of Philbrick that the Thanksgiving feast did not take place in November, but by the end of September or October. There is a possibility that the men that took part in the Thanksgiving feast went fowling for their Thanksgiving feast. The Thanksgiving feast that took place at the fall gave the Americans a radiate of hope as the events that took place during this period gave signs that things would turn out for their good (Philbrick 104-108). The book talks about how the Pilgrims or people that could be described as religious refugees landed in Plymouth Harbor during a period of catastrophe for the Native Americans. The Native Americans had to struggle with an alien disease that was brought into their lands by the European fishermen and this drastically reduced their population. Philbrick talked about the relationship between the Pilgrims and the Wampanaoags. The Pilgrims were led by the belligerent military officer, Miles Standish while the Wampanaoags were led by the enigmatic and scheming Chief Massasoit. The Wampanaoags were
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Employee Contribution and Wellbeing - Dissertation ExampleMany descriptions of motivation abound. whiz acceptable definition of motivation was postulated by Dr. Stephen Robbins. concord to the Doctor, motivation is the process fuck an individuals direction, persistence, intensity, and effort towards the attainment of an objective or goal (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995). Generally, though, motivation may be described as any factor that causes an increase in a persons normal input with the forecast and knowledge that a reward will follow (the input).One of the most important aspects of any constitution is productivity. Motivation plays a big role in how people perform at their workplaces. Kreitner, 1995 defines motivation as the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. Motivation may also be defined as the predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve proper(postnominal), unmet needs ((Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995)Motivation TheoriesAcco rding to Changing Minds.org (2009) motivated employees are vital for the success of rapidly changing organizations. motivate employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. This means that to be effective, employers need to know what exactly motivates employees in their jobs. glut Theories of MotivationIn an attempt to explain the various factors that motivate people, a number of researchers have postulated motivational theories. Content theories of motivation as some of these are commonly referred to include those associated with ERG, McGregor, McClelland, and Herzberg. Content theories explain essentially the reason humans keep changing in terms of their needs over time. Content theories, therefore, focalization on the specific factors that lead to peoples motivation. The main idea or logic behind these theories is the fact that individuals need should be considered for them to be satisfied. This in effect means that if the individuals specific ne eds are not satisfied or met, he/she will probably not be motivated enough to achieve objectives and goals. The following section describes the four main content theories.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Can Teaching The Key Ideas Of Object Orientation Be back up By Using Visual Representations - Dissertation ExampleObject oriented scheduling, however, remains an outstanding anomaly when it comes to teaching the concepts and the comprehension thereof. Much as it is difficult to introduce object oriented programming to novice, it too remains a nightmare to experienced procedural computer programmers to grasp the anthropomorphic perspective necessary for object-oriented design. to a lower place are some of the shortcomings encountered when introducing (OOP) to a noviceParadigm shift. According to Schoenfeld et al. (1993) replacing one idea with some other is not a simple task. why then is OOP difficult for learners to comprehend Well to be qualified to answer this question perhaps we consider to turn around, and view this menace from this spectrum when should object-oriented programming be taught collectable to the fact that Object oriented programming was considered as an adva nced subject that was taught late in the curriculum, this moldiness declare dealt a mega psychological lay waste to upon the minds of the learners. This is slowly changing more Universities have started to teach object-orientation in their first programming course. The main earth for doing this is the often-cited problem of the paradigm shift. Learning to program in an object-oriented way seems to be very difficult later being used to a procedural style. (Anecdotal evidence, 1999 indicates that it takes the average programmer 6 to 18 months to switch her wit from a procedural to an object-oriented view of the world.) Experience, on the other hand, besides shows that students do not seem to have any difficulty-understanding object oriented principles when they encounter them for the first time. international Regression.It is the switch... Paradigm shift. According to Schoenfeld et al. (1993) replacing one idea with another is not a simple task. Why then is OOP difficult for le arners to comprehend Well to be able to answer this question perhaps we need to turn around, and view this menace from this spectrum when should object-oriented programming be taught Due to the fact that Object oriented programming was considered as an advanced subject that was taught late in the curriculum, this must have dealt a mega psychological blow upon the minds of the learners. This is slowly changing more Universities have started to teach object-orientation in their first programming course. The main reason for doing this is the often-cited problem of the paradigm shift. Learning to program in an object-oriented style seems to be very difficult after being used to a procedural style. (Anecdotal evidence, 1999 indicates that it takes the average programmer 6 to 18 months to switch her mind-set from a procedural to an object-oriented view of the world.) Experience, on the other hand, also shows that students do not seem to have any difficulty-understanding object oriented pr inciples when they encounter them for the first time.Global Regression.It is the switch that is difficult, not object-orientation, for instance acquiring the learner to give up the global knowledge of control that is possible with procedural programs, and rely on the local knowledge of objects to accomplish their tasks. Novice designs are littered with regressions to global thinking
Thursday, April 18, 2019
festering of a Model aura Safety Program for General Aviation - Dissertation ExampleIn carnal knowledge to research methodology, a qualitative research approach has been considered in this report. Moreover, questionnaire surveys corroborate been conducted for both the emolument providers as well as the customers of the aviation industry. The sample coat was considered to be 100 for the customers and 50 for the value providers. Additionally, both primary cums (in the form of questionnaires) and secondary sources (in the form of literature review) have been taken into concern for this study. creative activity The introduction and the subsequent development of aviation resort programs has eventually emerged as one of the topmost concerns for the command aviation companies due to an increased rate of airline accidents or fatalities in the global arena. In relation to aviation safety, the two priority areas, which include the human factors and the impact of technological facto rs, are often spy as the most prominent causes for airline fatalities. With respect to the manual causing factors, it has been viewed that the errors which are often caused manually by the humans ultimately lead towards serious safety issues. Conversely, with regard to technology factors, it has been apparently spy that when the technology relating to aviation segment fails to perform its functions, it also increases the degree of risks concerning the security (Aviation Safety Corps, n.d.). After getting a brief idea concerning the different facets of the identified research issue, it can be stated that the study mainly deals with qualitative factors such as the experiences of the service providers and the conception of the consumers regarding the development of model aviation safety related programs. Consequently, a qualitative approach of research methodology has been implemented in this study in order to gain a better knowledge regarding the necessity of introducing as well as develop aviation safety programs for the general aviation companies. With regard to research design, suitable as well as important data has been collected from conducting surveys in the form of questionnaires as a primary source. The questionnaires have been intentional taking into account the service providers of the aviation companies and also the customers as the respondents. Apart from the primary source, the secondary source as a form of literature review has also been used in this study. The sample size was considered to be 100 for the customers and 50 for service providers. A descriptive analysis approach has been used in the study by evaluating the secondary sources in accordance with the primary data obtained. According to the data, the importance of introducing as well as developing model aviation safety related programs for the general aviation companies have been obtained. Project Literature Review According to the report published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (2011), it has been viewed that the numbers of airline accidents have increased substantially in the current years. This is fundamentally owe to the increased technological and human errors in preserving aviation safety. Consequently, the general aviation companies have been focussed upon the performance and the advancement of different safety initiatives with the intention of reducing the accidents by a greater extent as well
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Business research methods - Essay ExampleTimes create changed. People want more. Factors such(prenominal) as job satisfaction, pay, and contributions to the overall business are all influential in employee productivity, but it is the managers, the mid-level managers, that have the biggest influence over employee productivity.Incentive programs may be one of the most common forms of monetary salary for Productivity. The use of incentives may be viewed to have a positive influence on employee attitudes and behavior. A issue forth of private sector companies use monetary compensation as a way to influence its employees to practise at a higher level. Bonuses can be given to those employees that perform at a systematically high level.Incentive programs structured with employee input work best. Long-term incentives are more powerful than short incentive and certainly can lead to high motivation level among employees and lead to production.If you begin recognize for specific behavio r, the purpose of that behavior becomes the receipt of rewards rather than the personal hits of behaving in that manner. Incentives should be used to scram employees to be safe. You want to encourage an overall philosophy of safe behavior. (Billsims.com)Although increased wages are important, the comprehend value of money varies among employees. There are also many other factors that can influence whether monetary incentives will have the desired motivational effect. Incentive or gain-sharing programmes often fail to produce anticipate results when employees think the programme is unfair. Outside factors can influence employee production. Other issues such as family disputes or crisis, aroused instability (depression), media perception of an agency etc, all affect employee production.While healthy competition is a benefit to the agency, there is no need to create a hostile work environment because of resentment and animosity. tautness in the workplace can definitely cause empl oyees to be less
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Christian casualness EssayAccording to the page, Martin Luthers principle revolves around cardinal basic proposition of liberty. Which states that A Christian is a perfectly free sea captain of all, subject to none (Luther). By this statement he meant that once a person is freed by messiah Christ, there shouldnt be any other thing that would corroborate a true linguistic rule on the person on macrocosm. So if Jesus sets you free, indeed you are freed. He justifyed that musical composition has two folds nature the inner soul, the spiritual and the carnal, outward flesh. A Christian does not become righteous by doing anything that has to do with flesh but only by the faith in Jesus. Nothing on earth should have any influence on Christian liberty. The second principle was that a Christian military personnel is the most dutiful servant of all, and subject to everyone (Luther). The two propositions appeared to be contradictory but Luther was able to explain further on both m aking it clear. He asserts that only one thing alone is required for a Christian liberty and that is the Gospel of Christ.He defines Christian liberty as the freedom from the uprightness putting it that the law is not meant for a righteous man. It is the belief in Christ that brings peace and liberty. musical composition Freedom of the soul and its justification comes by faith alone and not by work, he tell it is evident that by no outward work or labor can the inward man be at all justified, made free, and saved (Luther). In conclusion, Freedom comes when one belief in the word of deity, that is ones soul get freed and one become saved.Whereas, one get liberty after one has believed wholeheartedly in the Gospel of Christ, it is the word of God that teaches liberty. The freedoms mentioned by Martin Luther all have an element in common they are all divine freedoms from things of the world. In contrast, Christians should be voluntary servants to God and other men, motivated by lov e for God and the changes made by salvation. Reference Luther M, Concerning Christian Liberty. Retrieved whitethorn 09, 2010 From http//homepage. mac. com/shanerosenthal/reformationink/mlchrlib. htm
Monday, April 15, 2019
black lovage The Great EssayOne of the most popular and secular figure in history is horse parsley the Great, who was great array leader and king. As you know he was the son of King Philip II, born in Macedonia (356 BC). His father Philip was a great and energetic ruler of his time. black lovage was taught by Aristotle. He learned philosophy, morality and politics from him. In actually early age he stared showing interest in military and showed his brilliance performance in commanding the Macedonians battles in his teens. He helped won the battle of Chaeronea at 18.THE m PERIODHe ascended the throne of his father in 336 BC, after the assassination of his father, and took over Thessaly and Thrace. He greatly expand the kingdom of Greek and Macedonian. He defeated Persian army in 334 BC at the Granicus River. He was destined to rule Asia after he cut the knot in Phrygia 333 BC.He to a fault defeated Persian King Darius III at the battle of Issus 333 BC. Later he expanded his motive to Syria and Phoenicia completely rooting off Persians from their port. One of his greatest military achievement was the conquest of tyre in 332 after which he overcame Egypt.GEOGRAPHYThere he founded Alexandria. Then he took control of vitamin E Mediterranean coast and again defeated Darius at Gaugamela. Then he conquered Babylon. In Persia he create an empire ruled by both Persians and Macedonians. He also took control of Oxus and Jaxartes rivers and founded more of Alexandria cities.He married Persian princess Roxana. He died at the age of 33 after heavy drinking and buried in Alexandria, Egypt. His conquest extended from Thrace to Egypt and from Greece to Indus Valley and expanded Greek and Macedonian Empire. Under his rule, he conquered almost the complete world of his era and expanded the empire of Macedonia and Greek.CLIMATE OF THE AREAThe weather was cloudy and occasionally sunny.RELIGIONS OF THE quite a littleAlexander thought that he had a divine rail line . He believed this because of his mothers conception that he was born from serpent not Philip. This affected much of the Alexanders life and at or so stage of his life he visited Temple of Ammon in Siwah to consult god and to trace his birth. Just bid Hercules birth was traced to Zeus, he considered his origin from serpent, Ammon.He wanted to draw a clear connection surrounded by him and Hercules, therefore, the coins he minted bear face of Hercules with great resemblance to Alexander. In this way, he stretched the message of his divine origin through out his conquered world.Alexander was also introduced as proskynesis (the one before him others bow) to proof his divinity. The one who is very superior king and all others are inferior to him and should bow in front of him.After the demise of Alexander, his successors started to fight for the domination. His empire was then divided in various small empires, namely Egyptian Empire, Seleucos and Macedonian Empire. Most powerful and strongest among these were Egyptian empire.IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF THE TIMEHomer was Alexanders favorite. He used to sleep with a copy of Iliad under his pillow. He learned a lot from Aristotle. When he was 16, he acted as regent of Macedonia. He then thrashed Thracians and founded a new city Alexandropolis. He also went to the Battle to help Philip and saved his life and army.1He was first taught by Leonidas, who was very strictly develop and instilled in him simpleton and abstinent nature. Then he was taught by Lysimahcus. Lysimachus taught Alexander to play lyre, fine arts, music, poem and drama. At the age of 13 he was taught by Aristotle.THE POLITICSAlexander ascended the throne after the bump off of his father and took hold of the troubled kingdom. Alexander Marched towards Athens and Thebes and towards northern side to take hold of the cities who were jeopardise to break away from Macedonians after Philips death. He subdued Athens and Thebes and repelled northern barbarians.M ost of the Alexanders success was due to political and military strength of Philip. Philips large contribution to the Macedonian army and acquisition of alliances with Balkans, strengthened his own kingdom and expansion of their empire in Alexanders era. Philip ascended to the Macedonian throne in 359 BC. At that time, Macedonia was suffering from a defeat and their political and military power was destroying at the hands of Illyrians.2
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Diagnostic Assessment EssayLuis is a 32-year-old male who immigrated to the U.S. when he was 14. He afterward became a US citizen. Although, Spanish is his native language, he speaks English extremely well. He recently returned to nutriment with his parents after being laid off from being a semi-skilled auto worker 6 months ago. Luis is the heart of three children. He has a younger sister and older brother, his brother is away at college. in effect(p) prior to being laid off, he became involved with a young woman he claims is the woman Im going to marry. He lives with his parents after being laid-off 6 months ago when he was living with friends. He was able to find a job where he works as a pizza delivery person. His mother was diagnosed with depression following the familys move from Puerto Rico. Luis completed high discipline and one year of vocational training.Luis is self-referral and has concerns about his anger and impulsivity. These issues have surfaced since his ret urning home. Luis also wanted to go why he isnt himself anymore. Luis stated that, I just dont feel homogeneous I am doing well but I dont know why. He describe feeling that there is really nothing bad going on in his life, nevertheless he just feels like everything is bad. He reports that his parents are on his case because he dont do anything other than sit around the house. His parents tell him that he needs to get himself under control. He feels like he really is not motivated to do things anymore.Luis reports that his home life finds him being jolting to his parents, especially when they make a request of him and he becomes angry over little issues. This is the same trope he had growing up with them. He left home when he was 22-year-old to live with buddies. He much argues with his girlfriend. His parents attend Christian church weekly yet, Luis only goes on some of the major holidays like Christmas and Easter.Luis reported that he was a C student in high school and rece ived a present for skilled machinist. Luis reported that he was an okay school student but had a hard date adjusting when he first started in the States. He stated he likes what he works at and has been sure-fire there as people tell him he does well.Luis reported that he has many friends, yet he has not been hanging out with them as much as he was before, and he dont feel like being with his girlfriend, because he get too angry with her. He reported that he likes to watch sports on television. Luis describes himself as a good person, but dont think he was when he was younger.Met all milestones at time of assessment he reported his health to be at bottom normal limits. Luis stated that he is not on any medication. His mother was diagnosed with depression following the familys move from Puerto Rico. No history of psychiatric admissions or behavioral disorders.Luis is neatly dressed wearing jeans and a t-shirt he is of average height and weight. He was alert and oriented to person , place, and time. He was soft-spoken and his vernacular was at normal rate. Luis was very cooperative and rapport was easily established. He came to the testing session willingly to participate but reported he had one of those nights where he had trouble getting and staying asleep. On some(prenominal) occasions, he slumped back in his chair. He followed directions and were observed to have times of being somewhat squashy in his responses.
Friday, April 12, 2019
The Syrian conflict through the theories of constructivism and realism EssayThis undertake aims to delineate and elucidate the Syrian conflict through the theories of constructivism and realism. Particular attention will be compensable to the origin of the Syrian Civil War, along with the major actors involved in this regional, and now international, conflict.The people urgency to topple the regime was the anti- organization graffiti on the wall of a topical anesthetic school in Daraa city painted by a group of Syrian children on March 2011. Those children were arrested and ragd by the local security authorities (Diehl, 2012 7). This act eventually led to an anti-governmental uprising due to the outrageous reaction of the residential area over childrens mistreatment after incarceration by the local security authorities. The uprising demanded the release of children, justice, liberty as nearly as equality for all people. At the core, these peaceful demonstrations were co nsidered to be against the sectarian and family authoritarianism because the political power was mainly held by the Alawite elite (Diehl, 2012). In response to these demonstrations, the Syrian government plotted to enforce security forces for the protestors to suppress them. The deadly aggression used by the government to oppose protestation led to protests across the country calling for the president to resign. Violence soon escalated as the government battled hundreds of climb up brigades. This rebellion further turned into a full-fledged civil war between the Free Syrian army and the Syrian regime (Thompson, 2016). The main allegation that the Syrian regime associated with the protestors was that they were Islamic Al- Qaedas extremist terrorist gangs who were back up and funded by the various countries such as Turkey, Qatar, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as the United States of America which they try to seek peace with Israel (Sommier, 2014). Similarly, the same Syrian regime who was supported by Russia, China and Iran, was present in the front fire line with Israel (Fisher, 2012). Since then, the regional and international hinderance has proven to be a key factor in the power struggle as the government and opposition hold received financial, political and military support. This has directly intensified the fighting and allowed it to continue Syria is efficaciously being used as a proxy battlefield (Wimmen and Asseburg, 2012).The death toll as preserve and presented by the Syrian center for policy research approximately totaled at 470,000 as a result of on loss conflict until February 2016. Due to the intensification and spread of fighting, a dire humanitarian crisis was evident since 4.8 million people tried to take refuge abroad and 6.1 million people were internally displaced as per the records of UN say-so for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. It has also been reported by the Syrian Network for Human Rights that since 2011, more than 117,000 people have been either disappeared or detained by the governmental forces. In the detention, ill-treatment and torture are two uncontrolled things that have also resulted in the death of thousands of people in detention. In addition to all the crisis events going on, ISIS (Islamic State) made more complications by the widespread and systematic violations. This was achieved by ISIS through targeting civilians with artillery, kidnappings, executions, using children as soldiers, and torture (Human Rights Watch, 2016).
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
authoritative condition EssayClassical conditioning is a form of basic breeding the body mechanic all(prenominal)y responds to a stimulus. One stimulus takes on the properties of another. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is credited for discovering the basic principles of authoritative conditioning whilst he was studying digestion in dogs. He developed a technique for collecting dogs salivary secretions. Pavlov (cited in Eysneck M.W 2009) noticed that the dogs would often start salivating forward they were given any food or precept the flowing bucket or even when they heard the footstep of the laboratory assistant coming to feed them. Quite by accident Pavlov had discovered that the environmental control of behavior arouse be changed as a result of two stimuli becoming associated with each other. These observations led to whats now called classical conditioning.A neutral stimulus (such as a bell) which normally wouldnt produce a response (such a salivatin g) eventually becomes polar with another stimulus (such as the food) this is referred to an unconditional response. When the bell and food (unconditional stimulus) are paired often enough the dogs start to salivate as soon as they hear the bell and before the food is served. When this occurs conditioning has taken place. (Cited in Burns 1995) Pavlov argued that if dogs could be conditioned to salivate then it is realizable to apply the process to bodily process that effect ailment and mental hetoph disorders. Nowadays classical conditioning is applied in the treatment of phobias and in aversion therapies.(Cited in Burns 1995).Operant conditioningOperant conditioning is the process of a deportment in which the standardizedlihood of a specific behaviour is increased or decreased through positive or negative backup. The theory is based on Thorndike (1993) law of effects which state that behaviour is a function of its consequences (cited in O Brien 2009). Skinner utilize observat ion as a leading approach to operate conditioning. A key principle of operant conditioning was that where behaviour is reinforced (that is where people are rewarded when they behave in a particular way). It willing tend to be repeated under particular circumstances. (Cited in Gross R 2010). For example a sire picking up a crying infant and if the baby stops crying when picked up, the probablility of the mother repeating the same behaviour increases since the cessation of the babys crying is a reinforced.(Gerry, K et alt page45) . Reinforcers stop also be primary or secondary.Primary reinforcers are our basic needs like food, water and shelter. Secondary reinforcers are events that have become rewarded through their association. For example money, because money can gratify people needs it takes on reinforcing characteristics of its own. Operant conditioning can be used in behaviour management and in education, for example children are rewarded when they do well in school and puni shed if they fail, if they chat someone getting rewarded they are more promising to copy the good behaviour. Operant conditioning can also be used to help people with addictions along with classical conditioning,for example in alcoholic drink and drug addiction. Operant conditioning is also used in pain management and in favorable skills training. It has also been used to reward schizophrenic patients for good behaviour. For example given them tokens in exchange for pleasing when they behave well in hospital.(Aylon Azrin,1968,cited in Eysenck 2009).Social LearningThe social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1965), has become the most influential theory of learning and development. Bandura argued that direct reinforcement could not account for all geeks of learning. He argued that people could learn new information by observing other people this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviours.(Cited in Eysenck, M 2009) for example Teenagers wanti ng to be thin like the models that they observe on the television or on the computer. Bandura (1965) Three groups of young children watched a film about adults behaving aggressively towards inflatable Bobo dolls. In one of the films it showed adults creation rewarded for aggressive behaviour. The second group were scolded and the third group were neither rewarded or punished. All children showed increased invasion if offered a reward for what they learnt, and the behaviour decreases if they are punished. (Cited in Gross 2009). for example social learning can be learnt through the media. Pop stars are often seen as role models, and children of smokers are more likely to smoke when they are adults.Phobic patient benefit more from watching fearful patients gradually tame their fears. (Cited in Gerry,K.et alt 1996) There are three core concepts in social learning, first learning through observation, mental state is essential part of the process and the theory also recognises that jus t because something is learnt doesnt mean it will result in a change in behaviour.(cited in Burns 1995)Positive reinforcement is far more effective than negative reinforcement. Bandura believed that observation and direct reinforcement could account for all types of learning. He argued that emotional behaviour could be switched off through modelling procedure. Learning need not needfully be correct. Through learning human behaviour can be modified. Learning is very central when working in social care, helpers need to know how to modify clients attitude toward their illness so the helper can work with them to recover.(cited in Burns 2005)
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Hispanic Voting Related Literature EssayThe coming of the 2008 US Presidential Elections has make studies on voting expression a fad in the scholastic community. Everybody wants to know, especially the beardidates, how America or segments of its population will voter turnout or the chances that a candidate will win based on some observations on voting patterns. Unfortunately, and not many people know this, checking voting behavior is not as simple as looking at the voting statistics.As one savant commented, voting is among the acts hardest to beg off (Uhlaner, 1989, p. 390). For one, Samuel Eldersveld (1951), defined voting behavior to connote more than the examination of voting records, exclusively as well includes analyses on individual psychological processes and their relation to the vote-decision, of group structures and functions and their relation to semipolitical action, as intumesce as institutional patterns and their impact on elections (Eldersveld, 1951, p. 71). therefrom, studies on voting behavior have also lead multi-disciplinary, and were never confined in the field of political science. Still, studying voting behavior holds so untold promise as far as theory construction is concerned, because it is viewed to be an bea where theory can be systematically and quantitatively measured and tested. Also, this ara offers more valid and reliable statements of causal determinants and a wealth of hypotheses, as voting behavior can be studied with respect to some(prenominal) attainable variables.(Eldersveld, 1951, pp. 72-73). In her emphasis on the role of groups, Carole Uhlaner hypothesizes that electors act as part of groups with sh ard interests (p. 390). Based on a utilitarian model of consumption earn, she suggests that a group votes for a certain candidate because it would benefit from the policy positions of that candidate. From here, it is not difficult to presume that ethnic groups vote for candidates coming from their own g roup because they are expected to represent their interests.Though on that point has been a debate, in the case of Hispanic Elected Officials (HEOs), on whether Hispanic members of the US House of Representatives substantially represent the interests of their Hispanic constituents ( booster and Tolbert, 1995 and Kerr and Miller, 1997), it is useful to start with the assumption that groups, especially ethnic groups, play an important role in determining voting behavior as identities and affiliations refer voters interpretations of the political world, preferences, and actions. (Uhlaner, 1989) olibanum, a very interesting, yet under-studied (Antunes and Gaitz, 1975 Hero, 1990 Arvizu and Garcia, 1996), subject of inquiry on voting behavior would be the Hispanics in the United States. Scholars and politicians alike are interested in finding out how Latinos vote because notwithstanding the increasing significance of the group, being the fastest growing minority group in the US (Tann eeru, 2007), there seems to be the absence of consistent or predictable patterns on Hispanic voting across areas and through time. It may stem from the fact that the Hispanic community is diverse and voting interests are not homogenous.A Cuban-American may vote for a Republican because of the partys long-standing policies toward Cuba, while a Hispanic in a border state may be affected by the stringent immigration policies. The finishing of a state can also affect a Hispanic voters behavior Texas voters may be more conservative in contrast to more liberal Hispanic voters in calcium. A study on the impact of religion also revealed that first and third generations placed more importance on religion than the second generation Hispanics in the US (Tanneeru, 2007).Socio-economic factors such(prenominal) as social class, occupation, poverty indicators, among others are also seen as significant determinants of voter turnout (Arvizu and Garcia, 1996 Antunes and Gaitz, 1975). In her expla nation of the Hispanic piteous voter turnout, Cassel even suggested that Hispanics vote less than Anglos during presidential elections because they t quit to be younger, less educated, poorer or less ofttimes contacted by a political party or candidate (Cassel, 2002, p. 397-398).In a comparison amidst the election of Federico Pena as Mayor of Denver, Colorado in 1983 and the bid of Victor Morales from Texas for US Senate in 1996 points to more variables that shaped the two campaigns. These include the size of the constituency, size and demographics of the Hispanic population, ability of the candidates to build coalitions of ethnic groups and sectors, person-to-person qualifications or experience of the candidate, membership in civic organizations, political party support and campaign funds.This also tells us that the mere presence of a large Hispanic population in an electoral regularise could not ascertain victory for a Hispanic candidate. In a study by Rodney Hero comparing Hi spanic political behavior in two Colorado cities Denver and Pueblo with other California cities, it appears that the governmental structure plays a significant role in determining different levels of mobilization of Hispanics in the cities.Colorado cities, with their unreformed structure, particularly Denver which has a strong-mayor system, have obtained greater political influence than what can be observed among California cities. This study supports the observation in 1983 in Denver, Colorado wherein Pena was elected into office with the highest Hispanic voter turnout ever recorded in the city. It also proves that it is not always the case that Hispanics are politically acquiescent and politically inactive and/or ineffective.(Hero, 1990) The observed political apathy of Hispanics had been explained by several studies in different ways. A study on voting behavior in Texas from 1960-1970 asserts that discriminatory devices such as the poll tax, the requirement of annual registrat ion, short registration periods, and length of time between the end of registration and general election had restricted qualified electorate in favor of white persons and those with greater genteelness and income (Shinn, 1971).Such means of discrimination, including literacy tests and printing of ballots in English, had also been used by the Mexican-American Legal Defense and educational Fund (MALDEF), to extend the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to include large jurisdictions where large Mexican American populations live. statement that Hispanics never really met the level of discrimination suffered by the blacks, for whom the Voting Rights Act was originally intended, Linda Chavez points out that Hispanic votes had been aggressively courted by presidential candidates since 1960s and that hundreds of Mexican Americans had held office since the 1970s.She contends that in places where Hispanics make up a large segment of the constituency, several other factors, not the absence of safe s eat for Hispanic representative, explain why no Hispanics hold office (Chavez, 1992). Complementing the initial observation of Chavez, George Antunes and Charels Gaitz found out in 1975 that in their interpretation of ethnic differences in the levels of participation among blacks, Mexican-Americans and whites, ethnic identification process among minority groups only part account for the higher level of political participation of the discriminated groups.However, they stressed that compared to blacks, Mexican-Americans have crusheder participation range for society of eleven indicators of political participation, including voting. This is basically because of the cultural norms of participation inculcated in black communities owing to their recital of discrimination wherein they suffered more than the Mexican-Americans (Antunes and Gaitz, 1975). Political history is also one of the aspects that Carol Cassel examined in her explanation of low Hispanic political participation as e vident in their low voter turnout, compared to the African-Americans.Seeing that Hispanics vote at the same rate with other ethnic groups during presidential elections, Cassel suggests that low turnout in low visibility races can also be attributed to the Latinos lack of political networks or just because Latino political leaders prefer to mobilize voters in more competitive elections (Cassel, 2002). Mobilization efforts also figured as a very important determinant in the 1996 elections voting turnout in California, Florida and Texas (Shaw, dela Garza and Lee, 2000).Nevertheless, Harry Pachon and Louis De Sipio accredit that the structural changes such as the extension of the Voting Rights, combined with ethnic political mobilization in Latino communities and efforts of groups such as MALDEF, contributed to the increased electoral and political clout of the Hispanics. In their list of HEOs in the 1990s, they have found out that there were 4,004 Hispanics holding publicly-elected of fices nationwide 1% of the national total nine states accounting for 96% of HEOs in the US and that Hispanics were represented at all levels of government, except for the Presidency.The only factors that could ebb the increasing trend of HEOs in the following years would be young Hispanic population and non-citizenship. (Pachon and De Sipio, 1992). Thus far, the numerous and variegated variables and determinants presented above attest that it is not easy to explain Hispanic voting behavior. Thus it is outflank to start with a single locality to test which of these or a combination of these variables could best explain Hispanic voting. (In this case, I have chosen to zero in on Houston, Texas, the fourth largest city in the United States.) Though in the process, I should be cautious against committing what Eldersveld warned with respect to generalizing from single cases. Nonetheless, I believe that studies such as this could make a good case for comparing with similar political settings, and eventually, in explaining Hispanic political behavior.ReferencesAntunes, G. and Gaitz, C. (1975) Ethnicity and Participation A Study of Mexican-Americans, Blacks and Whites. The American daybook of Sociology, Vol. 80, No. 5, 1192-1211. Arvizu, J. and Garcia, C. (1996) Latino Voting Participation Explaining and Differentiating Latino Voting trucking rig.Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 2, 104-128. Cassel, C. (2002) Hispanic Turnout Estimates from Validated Voting Data. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 2, 391-408. Chavez, L. (1992) Hispanics, Affirmative Action and Voting. Annals of the American academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 523, 75-87. Dela Garza, R. , Lee, J. and Shaw, D. (2000) Examining Latino Turnout in 1996 A Three-State, Validated Survey Approach. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 44, No. 2, 338-346. Eldersveld, S. J. (1951) Theory and Method in Voting Behavior Research. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 13, No.1, 70-87. Hero, R. (1990) Hispanics in Urban Government and Politics Some Findings, Comparisons and Implications. The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 2, 403-414. Hero, R. and Tolbert, C. (1995) Latinos and Substantive Representation in the US House of Representatives Direct, Indirect or Nonexistent? American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 39, No. 3, 640-652. Kerr, B. and Miller, W. (1997) Latino Representation, Its Direct and Indirect. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1066-1071. Pachon, H. and De Sipio, L. (1992) Latino Elected Officials in the 1990s. PS Political Science and Politics, Vol.25, No. 2, 212-217. Shinn, A. (1971) A Note on Voter Registration and Turnout in Texas, 1960-1970. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1120-1129. Southwestern Social Science Association. (1997, March 27) The Victor Morales for US Senate Campaign Did the quiescence Giant Notice an Unusual Campaign? Tanneeru, M. (2007, September 28). Inside the Hispanic V ote Growing in Numbers, Growing in Diversity. Retrieved from http//www. cnn. com/2007/US/09/28/hispanic. vote/index. html Uhlaner, C. J. (1989) Rational Turnout The Neglected function of Groups. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 33, No. 2, 390-422.
Great Gatsby and the American Dream EssayDream is a wildly creative and imaginative futuristic story of one and only(a)s, or anformer(a)s heart dream. It is the American Dream is one that encompasses the most imaginative story which is what the person desires to have or accomplish in his keeptime. Although all people of all ages have American Dreams, the apprehension of such(prenominal) a dream is truly impossible because of its wildly imporportionate measures of desire. In the Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the mysterious Jay Gatsby, had a similar fantasy dream. however, in theory, Jay Gatsby is exclusively as far as any other person in their development towards their trustworthy American Dream. Jay Gatsby, whose dream included of being with the girl of his dream, and being filthy rich. Having that sieve of dream was not only impossible that by pursuing his dream, it directly led to his decline and before long his assassination. The American Dream is a widely known and used feeling of a persons dream life, many an(prenominal) try to fol baseborn or achieve their goals until they make up it is just plainly impossible. Others realize from the very start that their most wild and extravagant American dreams are just what they are dreams.But then, people like Jay Gatsby do not give up and fight until the end, this came to be the case literally in the Great Gatsby when Gatsby pursues his dream until the time of his death. The entire notion of the American Dream had captured Gatsby, and his dream soon began to dictate his life, and actions. Throughout the novel, Jay is following this one dream that he truly believes can be his one day. This dream was to become very rich and have Daisy Buchanan as his lover. In fact, he does quite soundly in progressing in the dream until the brain where he combines reality and his fantasy and completely forgets about reality.This notion of the American dream was very much hyped up in the time after World struggle 1, in the 1920s called the Jazz Age, and this is just the same time frame that this novel is put in. Since on that point was many wrong doings and many people trying to accomplish these impossible dreams, the time geological period gave quite a influence on Gatsby and his actions toward his dreams. The corruption is explained by Diane Telgen even further Fitzgeralds book mirrors the headiness, ambition, despair, and disenchantment of America in the 1920s its ideals lost behind the trappings of class and material success (Telgen, 2).Although something may be impossible, Gatsby knows he will not stop until he achieves it, but due to this mindset he also begins living in a fantasy where he sees his dream take over his life and reality and influence his actions. Throughout the novel, Fitzgerald both openly and subliminally incorporated symbols to represent Gatsbys dream and his progress to attain the unattainable. As the reader reads the book he is foreshadowed by these sym bols of how the dream for Gatsby is literally out of his reach, and consequently will never be able to grab it. Throughout the novel, there are many time where Gatsby is looking out and sees a green abstemious.Since the dream has taken control, he warps a simple light into something magnificently grander in his mind. In the text of the novel Fitzgerald writes, a single green light, second and faraway, that cogency have been the end of a dock. (ch. 1) As seen in this quote, Gatsby has been overwhelmed by his dream and all he sees is his dream. He has even confused the differences betwixt logic and fantasy. because as seen here he, throughout the book, continuously is gazing at this minute green light thinking of it to be his dream and the closeness between him and Daisy.But he of route fails to realize the reality of the scene that it might just simply be the end of a dock, nothing more, nothing less. Not only was Gatsby blinded by such disillusionment between reality and f aker, but he strived to achieve his goal by doing whatever he thought was needed for the accomplishment of such a dream. Jay Gatsby was so emotionally and physically attached to his American Dream that he would do short anything to attain such a dream. Jay is willing to not only lie, but to do crime and other horrendous things just for his money and love.While in the Car going to New York City, Jay tells Nick Carraway his life dream, what is not told is that this life dream is late to be recognized as false and a cover charge up lie for Gatsby to seem better off and richer that what he really is. One of these lies is captured by Richard Lehan These ludicrous adventures he went on like living like a rajah in the capitols of Europe and accumulate rubies and jewels made some question his honesty. (get real quote not paraphrased one).Also not only did he make up a new life, in order to mpress a simple girl and earn money he was willing to even do crime which is just absurd in str aight offs societys eyes. In the time of the 1920s there were many immoral practices and many immoral practitioners like Gatsby committing crimes and making up his life as he went. In the novel he really is just not willing to give up on his greedy dream. Even to the point of death he kept on thinking to himself that there might still be a chance for him to have Daisy for himself, as his lover one day. The Great Gatsby written by F.Scott Fitzgerald included a twisted plot where the main character Jay Gatsby takes off on an impulse to love Daisy Buchanan and want her and his money. OF path his American Dream was just out of reach and due to such standards for Gatsby it truly led to quarrels between the characters which ended up with Gatsbys death. Jay Gatsby, whose dream included of being with the girl of his dream, and being filthy rich. Having that sort of dream was not only impossible but by pursuing his dream, it directly led to his downfall and soon his assassination.He was so a ttached to such a dream he saw simple, prevalent objects as signs to him that he is getting closer to Daisy, he also was willing to stoop as low as for a wealthy man to commit crime to earn more money just to impress Daisy Buchanan. He also did not stop there, he made up his own fake life where it lightened up his past for Daisys amusement and sticked to that notion until his assassination. Through this novel, it is yet again showed how the notion of the American Dream is just what it is a notion or a dream, nothing more, nothing less, and nothing attainable.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Experiments made in withdraw of nurture or Learning EssayThe question of raptus has been definitely put to a test in station to show far training in one line influences other lines. Many experiments and studies in transfer of training hand over been performed by psychologists. Starch considered the problem of transfer in two fields1. Transfer in Specific Psychological ActivitiesThe experiments performed in this field were the followingExperiments in memory, by jamWilliam crowd together was the first to attack the problem of memory-training experimentally. He investigated the effort of memorizing one kind of material on mightiness to memorize other kinds of materials. James himself memorized 158 lines from Victor Hugos Satyr and kept record of the succession spent. He then devoted thirty-eight days (20 minutes per day) to the mastery of Miltons Paradise Lost. After his Training in memorization, he selected another 158 lines from the Satyr and memorized them. He discover ed that he needed more time to learn this selection than he had spent in memorizing the first selection from the Satyr. His resoluteness showed negative transfer. From their studies James was led to believe that formal discipline is not an efficacious means of improving the memory (National friendship for the Study of Education, 2000).Experiment in perception, by Thorndike and Woodworth, in 1901 Thorndike and Woodworth studied the influence of special training on the esteem of magnitudes upon the ability to estimate magnitudes of the same familiar type, and the influence of training in observing wrangling containing certain other letters. Thorndike and Woodworth concluded from the first part of the experiment that at that place was more improvement in the ability to estimate areas similar to the practice material than in the ability to estimate dissimilar areas. The result of the second experiment showed that practice in cancelling words with certain letters had an indirect d epression on the cancelling words of words with other letters (National Society for the Study of Education, 2000).Experiments in judging weights of various sizes transferred to estimation of other weights, by Coover, in 1916these experiments showed positive transfer.Experiments in maze-learning for some(prenominal) rats and human, by Webb in 1971It was concluded from the results of these experiments that there were carry over effects from practice in one sensory-motor activity to another but the get of transfer varied with the individual subject (Morgan, 1999).From these studies of transfer two conclusions may be drawn (a) both negative and positive transfers occur between specific learning activities (b) the more similar the specific activities, the greater the positive transfer. In other words, whatever transfer occurred could be expanded in terms of equivalent elements of procedure, habits, and methods.Transfer in School SubjectsMost of the experimental studies made of transfe r in graduate(prenominal) prepare subjects were the followingFrom Latin to position by Thorndike and Rugger in 1923Thorndike and Rugger found out that their studies that high scho emeritusays freshmen who studied Latin made slightly higher scores in an English verbiage test than did students who had not studied Latin, the gain made on all words derived from Latin roots. So far as pedagogical practice is concerned, Thorndikes and Ruggers investigation established the concomitant of transfer of training (Skinner, 2000).From Latin to English vocabulary, by Hamblen in 1924Hamblen concluded that transfer from Latin to English vocabulary was great when word derivations were stressed in the teaching of Latin (Skinner, 2000).In conclusion, experiments in the effect of cross-education, in observing and judging sensory and perceptual data, and in forming sensory motor association habits have been conducted in considerable number by other psychologists. A few experiments in special schoo l functions have also been carried out. The results obtained from the experiments in those different lines, although confusing and sometimes contradictory, seem to warrant the belief that the old idea of a vast transfer, in some subtle and unexplained way, of special improvements to a general faculty, is false. It may be summed up by saying that the weight of evidence is all against formal discipline. The experimental evidence is against the idea that the faculties or powers of the mind can be trained like muscles so that the strengthen of these powers will automatically insure a high degree of efficiency in new and orthogonal material or activities.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Real land Investment Trusts in ChinaReal Estate Investment Trusts in China how ro expend we learn form Ameri jakes fashion model to develop our REITs constitution?Ouyang ChunAbstractThe objective kingdom commercialise is a burgeon foodstuff and is an essential let on in the Chinese economy. During the past decades, the governing do all their efforts to boost its outgrowth by using unconnected countries feature. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) model is new regularity to finance for city development. Since 2007, Chinese judicature began to runnel whether this model is suit adapted for China. The piece of music addresses the situation of Chinese REITs and the factors influencing REITs operating in China. Using the Ameri butt tiet REITs model for reference, the make-up likewise discusses how to solve this chores and how to implement REITs model in China.I. IntroductionThe real terra firma market place is waveing in these eld, particularly in China. The dem and of finance as well as the housing supply exculpates China searching for other more effectual financing orders to meet the increase requirements. Recently, with the releasing of the law restrictions and the reform and opening-up, more and more diversified sit downment methods atomic number 18 being tested in China. The Chinese authorities is now trying to find a new financing method by training from foreign lie with and integrating it with the Chinese situation. The REITs is considered to be one of the close efficient and suitable come outment tools in China.REITs scratch line appe atomic number 18d in the the States in 1960s. With over 40 years of development, REITs was successful in the States because of complete laws and professional e evaluation agencies. REITs developed rapidly in both(prenominal) their size and numbers since 1990 in the States (Chan et al., 2002), and now it is a very grow investment model in the USA, benefiting the individual investors by r unning properties under the professional institutions.A REIT is a mutual fund to collect money from both individuals and institutional investors, with the exemption of the lineation, investing to different categories of real estate projects in different regions in in a flash, and it is also can be traded on the comport markets (Jones. C, 2007). According to the Baker Review (Baker, 2003), the institutional investors select to use REITs, which is a impose transparent investment tool, to stimulate and to better the rent stock as well as to stabilize the market. This levy transparent feature means that there is no look at to pay double tax on REITs. Since 2007, the Chinese government established about test spots by choosing several potential projects, examining the feasibility of REITs in China. However, almost all the tests failed by dissimilar factors.The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors influencing the REITs adapted to the Chinese market. The paper also exam ines the experience from the USA, which has the most vaned REITs model in the world, and contrasts with the Chinese REITs model. As part of the task, the paper addresses the countermeasures for the factors influencing REITs feasibility in China by giving the law supports, improving the REITs models and establishing the professional evaluation system.The paper first examines the rendering and the properties of REITs and because addresses the current situation of REITs operation in China. It then considers the factors which influences why REITs did non particularly adapt to China before. The paper then introduces the experience of REITs in America and also the reasons making REITs successful in the USA. The final part of the paper considers the countermeasures for making REITs adapt to China in the future and draws close to conclusions.II. The current situation of REITs in ChinaIn this section, the paper result first address the potential of REITs in China, giving some reasons why REITs is considered to be the most suitable financial tool in China. The paper will then examine the reasons influencing REITs developed in China since 2007.A. The potential of REITs in ChinaThe National Association gave the definition of the Real Estate Investment Trusts as fol petty(a)ed (NAREIT) a REIT is essentially a corporation or business blaspheme that combines the capital of many a nonher(prenominal) investors to acquire or provide financing for all forms of real estate. The aim of REITs is to invest to the real estate market and to receive the returns, it just like the stock shares held by the investors, which creates the possibility to indirectly invest to the market with professional management.REITs is suitable for China because of its features, the liquidity, the diversification of risk and the available capital.The Liquidity of REITs is that it can be traded on the open markets just like the stock shares, which means that the individuals or the institution can invest to the real estate market scour though they are not the professionals in this area. It also gives them a chance to withdraw their asset quickly when the market is depressed instead of the long head of the direct investment (Eichholtz, 1996, Hoesli et al, 2000,Walpole, 1999).Eichholtz also pointed out that (Eichholtz, 1996) REITs can diversify the risk of the investment. The capital of the REITs will be divided into several parts to invest in different category of properties and in different regions. The development in China is unbalanced even in the metropolitans. Thereby, REITs will spread the risk efficiently for the investors and improve some undeveloped area where the direct investment did not participate in.REITs welcomes all kinds of investors including the retails and the institutions. Because it does not lead too much assets to involve, REITs may collects enormous money and grows a non-ignored capital in the market (Walpole, 1999). REITs can be cultivated stronger in China because of the massive of the retail investors, thereby, the available capital of REITs may become incredible massive and will benefit substantially for the Chinese real estate market.B. The reasons influencing of the Chinese REITsSince 2007, the Chinese government set up several test points to examine whether REITs adapted to China, however, almost all the projects failed, which unfastened many factors influencing REITs operating in China.The reenforcement laws and policies is non- luxuriant. The Chinese government published few supporting laws or policies for REITs. REITs returns are mostly attribute form the exemption of the tax, but there are still not any policies or laws published to exempt the taxes of REITs, which makes the incomes of REITs are very low. Thereby, the investors in China still custody and see to determinate whether invest to REITs market.The complicated properties of the projects make the evaluation difficult. Due to the limited test spots, the contest in Chinese REITs was very sharp since 2007, more and more conglomerates joint or had a will to join at that time, the projects they brought to the test spots is significantly huge for the Chinese REITs system. There was not enough preparations for such big properties in this market, such as the laws, the regulations as well as the evaluations systems, which is considered to be the most important part in REITs investment, did not prepare maturely at that time. Therefore, as the test began, the problems appeared gradually, the valuation of the properties was evaluated incorrectly or the values of the whole project were not easy to evaluate which caused the investor was not able to grasp the information precisely.The unclear ownership of the Property Portfolio bring down the value of the REITs. After the project started, this problem appeared significantly, a larger of buildings which were prepared to be the asset pack existed problems, the use or the property of lands are n ot correct or the approval process is not complete. Such buildings are not allowed to invest to the Chinese REITs market collectable to the laws. Thereby, these problems affected the evaluation of the asset directly and also affected debut the REITs definitely.The rental fee can not be collected efficiently. The Chinese government established some development areas in the past decades, in which the investor would be benefited when they established the projects by some policies. These policies exempted the rental fees from their buildings for a particularly period, which effected the operating of REITs dramatically, because the most important factor, the returns, was affected. A non-returnable property would not make and win for the REITs products obviously and would confuse the investor on how they would get their incomes after they invested, and so, it would not be approved by the market definitely.Although there were many defects in Chinese REITs, we could avoid these disadvan tages by using other countries experience for reference. The American REITs model is one of the most mature models in the world. Their development history, their REITs structure as well as the reason of its success are worth us to reflect our REITs model.III. The REITs model in USA and the digest of the reasons of the success of RIETs in AmericaIn this part, the paper will analyze the reason of the success in the American REITs. The paper will first give a brief history of the REITs in the USA and address its structure. After that, the paper will focus on analyzing the reasons promoting REITs market to boost and boom in recent years.A. A brief history of the REITs in AmericaThe modern pattern of the REITs appeared by the jetty Street in 1960s even though the idea of it can be dated gumption to 1880s. In 1960, in order to stimulate the depressed real estate market, the United State published the Real Estate Investment Trust piece, which gave the supporting law to the new invest m odel (Klame. P et al, 2001). This Act defined the regulation of REITs and also gave it the exemption from the federal taxation, which means there is no need to pay the double tax while using this investment tool (Klame. P et al, 2001).REITs did not make any significant achievements in the first decades, but grew dramatically from the 1990s, in which erupted a housing market collapse (Harvard University, 2003). Due to the low cost of management and the diversity of risk, more than 200 companies in America invested indirectly to the real estate market, the total assets exceed $ 12,000 billion until January 2000 ,and now, the American public real estate market is the biggest and most mature market in the world (Klame. P et al, 2001).B. The current situation of REITs in AmericaThe structure of REITs investors in America are divided into three parts, 55% in the municipal institutions, 25% by individuals and 7% by the foreign investors (Friday, 1999). REITs benefit all forms of the real estate projects, such as office buildings, shopping centers and private housing (Klame. P et al, 2001). The aim for the REITs was first defined for the retail investors, but attracted the institution investor since 2004, which increased the numbers of the trades as well as the liquidity of the REITs (Chan et al., 2002). Moreover, the REITs investors in America can obtain about 90% of the income of the REITs and do not need to pay any tax from their incomes, thereby making the benefits they receive higher than the stock markets (Klame. P et al, 2001).C. The reasons of the success of American REITsWith almost 50 years development, REITs in the United Stated became the most mature one in the world. The reasons for that are varieties.The first reason is the government published a lot of supporting laws. With these Acts, REITs developed rapidly. The REITs did not make many achievements at the very beginning, but the American government made all their efforts to push this investment metho d to success. With the Tax Recovery Act in 1986, the REITs in the USA first grew tremendously after experiencing the bubbles and the depressive disorder in 1970s. This Act weakened the limited partnership by restricting their tax exemption and cancelling the deepen depreciation accounting method of the real estate. The Act also loosened the access standard of the REITs, which made the REITs companies not only owned the real estate assets, but also could manage the properties. Moreover, most of the REITs added the low debt provision in their organizational files, which would absolutely reduce the risk in operation. These changes attracted the investor to join this boom market and promoted the development of REITs.At the end of 1999, the most important Act, REITs Modernization Act, passed and published in 2001. This Act reduced the distribution proportion to 90%, and stipulated the companies could dominate the profits freely after they pay the tax from their un-distributed incomes. T herefore, REITs could use this profit to maintain the existing properties, invested to new properties or pay the debt. As a result of that, this Act increased the investment chance and promoted the business performance. These Acts helped REITs to become more flexible, more focus in client demands and a more profit-seeking institution.The supporting laws and policies are definitely important, however, REITs needs more supporting from the financial system, and the evaluation system is considered to be the most important systems in REITs development.The evaluation system in the U.S. is quite complete. With the experience of over 100 years financial operation, the Americans accumulated substantial finance evaluation experience. When REITs started, the evaluation of the REITs products were not difficult tasks to finish. Almost all the REITs projects had been evaluated correctly, which provided accuracy information to the investors. Due to the REITs market is not difficult to enroll, most of the investors, including individuals and institutions, could operate readily when they joined the market. That absolutely promoted the REITs boom in the United State during 1990s.In addition, REITs companies in America invest to specific objects. Compared with China, the U.S. REITs concentrated in existing real estate projects, which means the companies prefer to operate the buildings rather than to establish one. That would absolutely reduce the risk for REITs, which attracted a lot of investors.These three factors motioned higher up supported the REITs developed very fast since 1990s and make it becomes one of the most efficient and mature REITs model in the world. The Chinese REITs may probably enlighten form these experiences and avoid the problems by learning their developing history.IV. CountermeasuresTo establish a relatively complete environment for REITs investment, China would probably benefits from the American experience. The paper will provide some suggestions wh ich mogul helpful for improve the REITs in China.A. Exemption of the double tax of REITsAs Chinese REITs markets were primarily affected by the investment environment, especially the supporting laws, the Chinese government could refer to the American model to release the law restricting gradually.The most exigent problem which should be solved first is the taxes on the REITs products. The American experience exposed that the transparency feature of the tax is the most important factor promoting REITs market boost. Without the tax transparency, the returns of the REITs would be very low. The Chinese government should use this experience for reference, exempting the double tax on the REITs, stimulating the REITs markets by raising the returns.B. Introduction for the publicDue to the returns of REITs are a little bit higher than the stock markets and the investment skill is fairly easy to grasp, both the individual and the institutional investors would be willing to invest to this mar ket. However, the REITs market was not flourishing as the exception, that is mainly because most individuals in China did not understanding what was REITs and how many retunes they could received by the REITs, even the specialists would not invest lightly due to the unclear information of supporting policies of the REITs. If the government really want to boom the REITs market, they should focus on publicize the REITs products to the citizen and publish the very clear supporting policies or law to recruit the investors faith. In order to extent to market of REITs, it should absorb both individual investors and institution investor to join. However, the Chinese government paid more attention on the institutions instead of considering the individuals, which cause the insufficient funds of the REITs markets. Obviously, the institution investors are quite cautious and would not invest their money to the uncertain finance products such as REITs, which would directly lead the depression of the REITs markets and also caused a vicious circle no investors, no money and no money, REITs market would not attract investors. To change this situation, money from individual investors is necessary because the asset from individuals is fairly huge in China. The government should use this kind of power, just like the U.S. model, to support the unstable REITs market at its very beginning. Using the bank sell model, which is just like the fund sell model in China, and minimizing the unit of REITs just like the American to create the chance for individuals to enroll.C. The clear investment aimThe investment object is another severe problem in Chinese REITs model, REITs companies in China used to prefer invest to the big projects. Because the limitation of the test spots, the opportunities are very competitive. Most of the companies used their best properties to join this market, these properties are so huge that could not be evaluated very clearly before they used them to invest. Therefore, due to the unclearly evaluation of these properties, the information for the investors are ambitious, which would definitely cause severe problem in them investment decision-making. Moreover, REITs in China is a relative new investment methods for both individual investors and institutional investors, with the unclear information, investors therefore would not have a willing to buy this kind of finance products, they might consider that REITs is a very risky products for them to invest. That is also a reason why investors enthusiasm for this investment tool is not very high as the expectation. However, the situation in America is complete change. At the very beginning, REITs was considered to be a quite popular invest method, the reason for its depression is the only the double tax. Thereby, when the government released the tax and published some supporting laws to regular REITs, its market grew suddenly. That is because almost all the properties, which are provided by t he REITs companies in America, were not very huge at the very beginning and were evaluated clearly before they came into the markets. Even some properties are relatively big, having been given exhaustive information for the investors. Therefore, investor could easily invest to these products with this information and would approximately guess the incomes they would return. Such experience should be used in Chinese REITs market, establishing the professional evaluation agencies to provide the ex officio evaluation reports to the investors, making sure the information they received is true and intact. That might greatly stimulate the investors confidence and give them a positive signal that the REITs is a fairly formal investment tools for them to choose.V. ConclusionsThe Chinese real estate market is booming these years, but it is by no means that all of the foreign finance methods suitable for China. When we want to use some advance experience to the Chinese market, we should cons ider it very clearly, not only learn the structure of concept of the new method, but also we may need to condition out the essential of it and in what situation we will use it. According to the REITs, we may understand that even its concept is fairly suitable for Chinese situation, the operation details is also quite difficult to follow. It might need several years to establish our own REITs market and to publicize it to the whole citizen. That is not the task which only to publish some REITs products, it is also a task to build a whole REITs system, including the supporting policies or laws, complete the evaluation system and extending the REITs spots. All of them need time to finish. Therefore, we could not run it so fast but to make sure every step is moderate and efficient. In this circumstance, we may probably find some new problems and new chance for us to develop our REITs, and also we might attend some new ideas or methods to make the REITs more efficient and more suitable for China.ReferencesBarker, K. (2003) Review of lodgement Supply Interim Report-Analysis (London HMSO).Chan, S. H., Erickson, J. Wang, K. (2002) Real Estate Investment Trusts Structure, Performance, and Investment Opportunities (Oxford Oxford University Press).Eichholtz, P.M.A., Does International Diversification Work break for Real Estate than for Stocks and Bonds?, Financial Analysis daybook, January-February, 1996, pp. 56-62.Friday, H.S., G.S. Sirmans, and C.M. Conover, Ownership Structure and the Value of the Firm The Case of REITs, Journal of Real Estate Research, 1999, vol. 17, no. 1/2.Harvard University (2003) The State of the Nations Housing 2002 (Massachusetts,