Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The Worst Day of My Life It was August 20th 2005 on a Friday morning. I woke up and I was feeling alright. I did what I usually do on Fridays. I cooked, cleaned, took a shower, brushed my hair, and then sat in the living room to watch T. V. Next, my favorite show came on and I was happy and excited toÃ watch the new episode. Later, the phone rang while I was watching the T. V, then I got upÃ and then answered the phone. It was my sister in law calling, to tell us that our father had passed away aboutÃ an hourÃ ago.I could not believe what I was hearing; I throw the phone on the floor, fell to my knees and started crying. My mother and everyone else ran towards me, asked me what was wrong and what I found out over the phone. I could not talk at all; I was out of breath from crying. But they all knew something terrible had happened. My mom picked up the phone from the floor and then talked with my sister in law, to find out the sad truth. My mom was shocked like me when she hea rd what I heard.When my siblings found out, we all fell apart and started to cry and hug each other. We prayed and asked god to get us through the tough time we were going through. After we prayed I went and sat in the corner with my brother and older sister. Three of us kept sitting and crying. After that my mother was trying to comfort us, but she could barely talk because she was crying so much. Unfortunately crying wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the reality. My mother had to break the news to everyone over the phone.It was very painful hearing my mom breaking the news to the rest of the relatives, but we had no choice. In conclusion, our life has changed dramatically ever since my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death because my mother had to take all the responsibilities. Life was never the same for us, for we are missing the head of the household. Since the loss of our father is a fact, we had to live with the pain and get used to it. And every time that date passes we remember the grief of losing ou r father. Worst Day of My Life The Worst Day of My Life It was August 20th 2005 on a Friday morning. I woke up and I was feeling alright. I did what I usually do on Fridays. I cooked, cleaned, took a shower, brushed my hair, and then sat in the living room to watch T. V. Next, my favorite show came on and I was happy and excited toÃ watch the new episode. Later, the phone rang while I was watching the T. V, then I got upÃ and then answered the phone. It was my sister in law calling, to tell us that our father had passed away aboutÃ an hourÃ ago.I could not believe what I was hearing; I throw the phone on the floor, fell to my knees and started crying. My mother and everyone else ran towards me, asked me what was wrong and what I found out over the phone. I could not talk at all; I was out of breath from crying. But they all knew something terrible had happened. My mom picked up the phone from the floor and then talked with my sister in law, to find out the sad truth. My mom was shocked like me when she hea rd what I heard.When my siblings found out, we all fell apart and started to cry and hug each other. We prayed and asked god to get us through the tough time we were going through. After we prayed I went and sat in the corner with my brother and older sister. Three of us kept sitting and crying. After that my mother was trying to comfort us, but she could barely talk because she was crying so much. Unfortunately crying wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the reality. My mother had to break the news to everyone over the phone.It was very painful hearing my mom breaking the news to the rest of the relatives, but we had no choice. In conclusion, our life has changed dramatically ever since my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death because my mother had to take all the responsibilities. Life was never the same for us, for we are missing the head of the household. Since the loss of our father is a fact, we had to live with the pain and get used to it. And every time that date passes we remember the grief of losing ou r father.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Think about your own organization and the people related records that it stores Identify five records that would fit within any of the identified reasons for keeping records outlined above (you will find more information on these on p278 Ã¢â¬âp280 of the course textbook). Explain why your organization needs to maintain and use these records (provide examples of how they are actually used where you can). Training Records Ã¢â¬â At Enterprise we have a spreadsheet called Ã¢â¬Å"The MatrixÃ¢â¬ , this stores each employed persons training records. It is a basic excel spreadsheet with a column for names and a list of each of the available courses within Enterprise along the top. As soon as an employee has been on a course this will be inputted on to the spreadsheet along with the expiry date (if there is one) so we can ensure all personnel have valid records. Having this information available is very important, due to the nature of our work we need to show that we are keeping our employees safe by having valid training records. For example if there is an accident on site and an employee has hit an underground cable, we would need to be able to show that the person has valid training records for Ã¢â¬Å"safe diggingÃ¢â¬ to our Health and Safety officer otherwise we as a company could be seeing as being negligent when we have a duty of care towards our employees, this could result in claims against the organization. Invoice Tracker Ã¢â¬â Every week invoices are sent in from our DSPÃ¢â¬â¢s to each of our contracts within the Trowbridge office. I am the project manager of shrouding and have 2 invoices sent in from each of the companies working for me. LevenÃ¢â¬â¢s & MOYAD construction. Once these invoices are emailed to me I will copy and record the information on to my Ã¢â¬Å"surveyingÃ¢â¬ spreadsheet. This spreadsheet contains all site numbers ever worked on by each of my sub contractors and to what percentage that they were done on which day. HavingÃ this information is vital to my contract I need to be able to check that each site is not being invoiced on more than one occasion as well as to the percentage that is required. Also on this spreadsheet it shows how much money will be due to be paid to both the contractor and Enterprise. Showing weekly turn over information and that we are hitting profit margins are essential on monthly meetings. Also if there was ever a dispute of pay, being able to refer to this information is important. Employee personnel Files Ã¢â¬â Each employee of Enterprise has their own personnel file. This file contains full name, address, date of birth, bank details, sickness and holiday absence details as well as written warnings (if they have any) and their signed Enterprise contract stating what their job role is and salary. These files are used when appropriate, usually when employees details need updating or they have booked holiday. Online Time Sheets Ã¢â¬â Every week every employee within Enterprise must fill out an online time sheet in order to be paid. The guys on site bring in a written version of this for the person who deals with time sheets to update their online version. This is so that any absence is recorded whether it be for half an hour or for an hour, this provides accurate attendance percentages and highlights regular patterns of absence. Curriculum Vitae Ã¢â¬â For every Job advertisement that is put on the job websites a large number of CVÃ¢â¬â¢s from potential applicants. These are all then filtered down to persons with most experience and knowledge of the role that we are looking to fill. These persons will then be asked to interview, if they are not successful we will still store there CV on file for six months. This is a helpful system and saves re advertising for the same job if a vacancy arose for that position. Learning activity two Again think about your own organization. For the five records you have identified above, identify and describe how the records are stored. Explain the rationale for this. Training Records Ã¢â¬â These records are stored on Microsoft Excel, this system allows us to filter out whatÃ¢â¬â¢s relevant and what isnÃ¢â¬â¢t depending on the persons records we are searching. As soon as a course is booked for an employee the date of the course is put on the system till the certificate is received, at which point the expiry date ( if there is one) will then be entered in itÃ¢â¬â¢s place. Invoice Tracker Ã¢â¬â The invoice surveying data sheet is in Microsoft Excel, this allows easy copy and pasting of data from spreadsheet to spreadsheet. Once an invoice has been received all data from the invoice will be extracted by copying and recorded on to the surveying form by pasting in to the relevant columns. Employee Personnel Files Ã¢â¬â These are all held in a locked filing cabinet in alphabetical order. Any new employee will have an personnel file created on their day of induction. All of their personal information will be stored in here and updated when necessary. Online Time Sheet Ã¢â¬â The online time sheet is kept on our internal server database, It is a case of simply going in to Ã¢â¬Å"online time sheetÃ¢â¬ on the server, clicking on last weeks week, and inputting the hours worked during that day. CVÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â All CVÃ¢â¬â¢s received from suitable job applicants will be stored in a file on the computer. They will be copied from the Enterprise email inbox and pasted in to the file, or scanned if received through the post. Learning activity three Take one of the examples of areas of organizational activity that require accurate information to facilitate decision making. For this example: Identify and describe how the data is gathered Provide at least three examples of the sort of information that is derived and why it is useful Describe how the information is used to inform the decision making process Describe how and to whom the information is presented Draw up a list of these. Curriculum Vitea when advertising a vacancy: Once Enterprise have advertised a vacancy on the system, this will be logged on to the job centre website and other job search sites. With an Enterprise email to send all CvÃ¢â¬â¢s too, there is also an address for those who are unable to send via email. All CVÃ¢â¬â¢s are automatically filtered in to a separate email inbox, and posted CVÃ¢â¬â¢S are scanned in to the system as well and will wait for review by the relevant persons. Once a significant amount of CVÃ¢â¬â¢s have been sent in the filtering process will begin, for example if we were advertising a Data input/Administration role we would look for experience in those titles from previous roles. Or a qualification in business administration. Filtering through this information is important so as to find the right person for employment. Once the CVÃ¢â¬â¢s have been filtered through they will be passed on to the office manager for review. They will then pick names from the persons filtered and make an appointment for interview. The interview is carried out by our office manager and a member of staff who will be training the potential candidate. The candidate will be asked a series of questions relating to their working background and what their skills are as well as a question on Enterprise this usually tells us straight away whether they had made the effort to do some research. This goes down very well with the office manager. Once all interviews have been carried out they will be filtered down to three potential employees who will go to the final stage of the Interview process which is a trial half day. The people who were not successful will be sent a standard letter telling them that their CV will be kept on file for 6 months. Trial half day consists of a member of staff who has a good knowledge of the role being taken on, And the potential employee. They will be shown what toÃ do and given tasks to get on with. Once all three candidates have been in for this, the office manager, the trainee and and a member of office staff will sit down and make a decision based on how well they got on, how quickly they learned the tasks and general attitude within the workplace. This person would then be informed of their success and will be given a start date. The two other candidates will be sent a standard letter informing them that they were unsuccessful on this occasion and that their CV will be kept on file. The short listed CVÃ¢â¬â¢s will be kept in a separate folder to the other batch of CVÃ¢â¬â¢s. Learning activity four Consider what data gathering methods you might use for a particular information gathering requirement. Cover: The specifics of the requirement The method(s) used Reason for using that particular method Any considerations in using the particular method Interviews Ã¢â¬â Potential employees, this method is perfect for getting to know the candidate, asking any questions not answered in their CV. Consider writing down all questions you are thinking of asking to avoid forgetting to ask. Surveys Ã¢â¬â Surveys are a good way to gather data from a large number of people when itÃ¢â¬â¢s impractical to meet them face to face, it is a good method of getting an opinion on a product, service or company. Surverys can be both formal where the results are due to statistical, reliability and validity. And informal where the results are anecdotal Ã¢â¬â Anecdotal The definition of anecdotal is something that is story-like or something that is based on stories and retellings, not based on provable facts. Observations Ã¢â¬â Direct observations are a good way of recording data, especially in a working environment, they are often done in conjunction withÃ another data gathering method that is used to fill in the gaps and answer questions. Observations must be arranged with plenty notice to the person you are observing and the permission from management. Consider getting someone who can tell you what to look for with regards to what you are observing, for example the use of a new mechanical device in a warehouse. Learning activity five Explore the information under the link above, then tackle the following: List the eight principles of the DPA with a brief explanation of each What does the DPA say about the rights of individuals to access to data kept on them? List at least five measures you might take to protect personnel information The eight principles of the DPA Data Protection act are the following: 1: Processing personal data fairly and lawfully, It means that you must have legitimate reason for collecting and using personal data, you must not use the data in way that have unjustified adverse effects on the individual concerned, be clear on how you intend to use the data, handle the personal data in ways they would expect and make sure you do not do anything unlawful with the data. 2: Processing personal data for specified purposes, meaning you must be clear from the offset as to why you require the information and what you are going to do with it, comply with the acts fair processing requirements Ã¢â¬â including the duty to give privacy notices to individuals when collecting their personal data. You must also comply with what the act says about notifying the information commissioner and ensure that if you wish to use or disclose the personal data for any purpose that is additional to or different from the originally specified purpose, the new use or disclosure is fair. 3: The Amount of personal data you hold; Personal data should be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed. Meaning that you hold personal data about an individual that is sufficient for the purpose you are holding it for in relation toÃ that individual and you do not hold more information that you need for that purpose. 4: Keeping personal data accurate and up to date; personal data shall be accurate and when necessary up to date, to comply with this you should take reasonable steps to ensure the accuracy of any personal data you obtain, ensure that the source of any personal data is clear, carefully consider any challenges to the accuracy of the information, and consider whether it is necessary to update the information. 5: Retaining personal data; personal data processed or any purpose shall not be kept for loner than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes. Meaning review the length of time you keep personal data, consider the purpose or purposes you hold the information for in deciding whether and how long for to retain it, securely delete information that is no longer needed for this purpose or these purposes; and update, archive or securely delete information that goes out of date. 6: The rights of individuals; Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this act; the rights of access to copy the information compromised in their personal data; a right to object to processing that is likely to cause or is cause damage or distress, a right to prevent processing for direct marketing, a right to object to decisions being taken by automated means, a right in certain circumstances to have accurate personal data rectified, blocked, erased or destroyed, and a right to claim compensation for damages caused by a breach of the act. 7: information security; appropriate technical and organizational measures shall be taken against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data. It means you will need to design and organize your security to fit the nature of the personal data you hold and the harm that may result from a security breach; be clear about who in your organization is responsible for ensuring information security; make sure that you have the right physical and technical security, back up by robust policies and procedures andÃ reliable, well trained staff as well as being ready to respond to any breach of security swiftly and effectively. 8: Sending personal data outside the European Economic Area; personal data should not be transferred to a country or territory outside the #EEA unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level od protection for the rights and freedoms od data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data. Individuals who wish to access personal data on themselves commonly known as subject access; Can do so by writing a request to the company with possibly paying a fee, this entitles them to be told whether their personal data is being processed, they can request that they are given a description of the personal data, the reasons it is being processed and whether it will be given to any other organizations or people. The individual can also be given a copy of the information compromising the data and be given details of the source of the data. An individual can also request the reasons as to why any automated decisions are made for example a computer generated decision on credit. Whether to allow or deny. The individual is entitled only to their own personal data and not to information relating to other people. If I was running my own company the five measures I would put in place to protect the personal data are the following: Install a fire wall, anti spy ware and virus checking on all computers, this is a very common security implication, this would protect my computers from viruses which have the potential to download information from my computers to theirs. Anti spyware provides a monitoring service which stops programs being installed that can read passwords, bank details and other sensitive data. Protect computer files with passwords: Protecting files with passwords is a good way of keeping data restricted; I would ensure that only a few members of staff have the password and that it is changed on a regular basis. Disposing of computers; All old computers should be destroyed correctly, by using a recognized computer disposal service or by destroying the hard disk. Any old computers despite deleting the data, can still be accessed. Email information securely: Consider whether the email should be password protected. Learning activity six Look at the information provided under the link above, then tackle the following: What are the two ways that public authorities are obliged to provide information? What is the public interest test? What is a vexatious request? Try to interpret your answers using your own words Public authorities are obliged to publish information about their activities, as well as members of the public are entitled to request information from them. Public authorities must publish information proactively; The freedom of Information act requires every public authority to have a publication scheme. A publication scheme is a commitment by the council to make information available routinely, without waiting for someone specifically to request it. The publication scheme must state a promise to make certain levels of information routinely available such as who you are and what you do, the services you offer, organizational structure, policies and procedures, Contracts and reports, minutes of meetings, annual requests and financial information. Once the publication has been created it must first be approved by The Information Commissions Office ICO. Information in the publication scheme represents the minimum that must be shown, if a member of the public wants information that is not on this, they can still ask for it. Members of the publican request information from public authority and they have two separate ways in which they can respond: 1: Tell the applicant whether you hold any information that matches the criteria of what they have requested. 2: to provide them with the requested information Usually the request should be responded to within 20 working days. When receiving a request it must be in the form of a letter of email to be valid under The Freedom Of Information Act, the request must include their name, address and a description of the information requested, the act covered information not specific documents. The public interest test is a guidance document provided by The Information Commissioners Office,he has produced this series of good practice guidance designed to aid understanding and application of the FOIA The aim is to show some of the key areas of the freedom of information act and to help guide on how to respond to information requests. The guidance provided by the ICO is only a starting point going from research I found: section 1 of FOIA sets out the right to any person making a request for information to a public authority these are: The right to be informed Whether the information is held or not by the authority and if so then The right to have that information communicated to them. In principle it states that both these rights need to be treated separately. When applying the public interest test, consideration should be given first to whether it is right to confirm or deny whether the information is held and secondly whether the information should be supplied. To decide whether a request is vexatious you would need to look at the following: Can the request be seen as obsessive Is the request harassing the authority or causing distress to staff Would complying with the request impose significant burden in terms of expense and distraction ( with regards to employees) Is the request designed to cause disruption or annoyance Does the request lack any serious purpose or value You should be able to decipher whether the request is vexatious by looking atÃ these headings. Learning activity seven There are many methods of keeping records or information, some of which are computerized. Identify three types of records or information that relate to an area of business and inform decision making in that area. For each of the three types: Describe how the information/record is stored How reason for storing the information/record in this way How the storage method meets the requirements of the DPA Keeping records of employees sickness and absence, we keep his electronically on the system in a password secured file. Each person has there own line on a spread sheet and each day they are off that date will be marked in red, with a comment attached to it stating why the person was off sick. Any sick notes will be scanned in to the system and stored within that persons file. We ensure that this file is secure at all time and only management have access to it. Reasons for this is that we want to ensure other employees cant see other peoples absence and reasons for being off sick as that is private and confidential. The DPA states the following: obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes adequate, relevant and not excessive to the purpose for which the data are required accurate and, where necessary, kept up-to-date kept secure against unlawful or unauthorised processing, or accidental loss or erasure This is compliant with the Data protection act as we have only managers who have access to the file. We must keep this information as up to date as possible as absence and sickness in the work place can highlight problem areas that need to be looked at and resolved. Keeping CVÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â These are all stored in a file on the main system, these can be accessed by the nominated filter processors who are usally a member of the team which the vacancy is for, and the manager of that dept. This is soÃ they can access them when needed. CVÃ¢â¬â¢s are usually kept for a year and then disposed of. This is compliant with the DPAÃ¢â¬â¢s standards as we donÃ¢â¬â¢t keep information longer than we need to as well as having only a select few people who are able to access the information. Training certificate records Ã¢â¬â All certificates are kept in our personnel files, however our training dept at head office also holds a copy as when the training is carried out a copy of the cert is sent to them also. This information is recorded on our training matrix and updated accordingly. We store the certificates in this way so that we can see who requires training and when. Also if anything happens on site and our health and safety officer needs to see what training they have in place we can have it available as soon as possible for him. Our storage methods meet the requirements of the DPA by keeping the information secure, all our employees have access to their records when required. We do advise that when we receive a certificate that they come in for a copy to put in their own records at home. Learning activity eight Take one example from the context of your organisation where information has been sourced, collected, analysed and then interpreted to inform decision making. For this example: State why the information was needed (how was it intended to support decision making?) How was it sourced? What method of data gathering was used and why? Show an output from the analysis of the data (example: pie chart, bar chart) Sickness and Absence Ã¢â¬â The information is gathered from employees time sheets which are handed in weekly to the office manager the time sheet consists of a basic table on an A4 piece of paper that requires the employees to input their hours. This will then be handed in and inputted manually. This can then be printed off and used. Sickness and absence information is required once a month at the operations meetings, the operations manager will go through with the contracts manager as to why someone was off for a period of time whether it was due to sickness, was a doctors note provided or whether it is a reoccurring unauthorized absence. If it is an re occurring unauthorized absence; this will be highlighted with our HR Department at head office. Once this happens our HR representative Jo Betts will arrange an interview with the person to get to the bottom of why they are having this time off and whether an improvement program can be put in place. Usually they will be issued with a warning and put on an attendance watch if they cannot give a valid reason as to why they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t coming in to work. This bar chart is in my Evidence folder 02.07 document Learning activity nine Look at the example above Ã¢â¬â and considering the broad principles of a dashboard Ã¢â¬â describe how you might create a dashboard (or describe an existing dashboard What areas of information would/does it contain? From where would you source the data to populate the dashboard? Who would use the dashboard and why? I would create a dashboard based on training record information; it would show what percentage of employees had valid training records and what percentage have them but they are out of date.. I would also have an accident chart, we have a few accidents a month relating from hitting underground BT cables and water pipes, as well as employees having accidents from climbing electric poles. Due to the fact most of our accidents are fairly similar, I would be able to group them easily by title. We provide training courses for all of these incidents such as Ã¢â¬Å"pole top rescueÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Safe digging practicesÃ¢â¬ , so where an employee may not have a valid training record for this, and that employee was involved in the accident this would be a good way of highlighting why the accident happened in the first place and that he should not be carrying out that particular job without undergoing training. I would source the training data from the Training Matrix file system. ThisÃ information is kept up to date at all times and is readily available to me when I need it. The accident data is kept with our Health and Safety manager, I would request the information from him. The dashboard would be a great tool to take to Operations meetings where our health and safety manager goes over the level of accidents and training carried out for that month. He can then compare using a bar chart whether there are a higher percentage of valid training records for that month in comparison to others. Learning activity ten Read the information contained under the link above, then tackle the following: A Balanced Scorecard approach generally has four perspectives Ã¢â¬â what are they? What are the potential benefits of using a balanced scorecard? Why is feedback essential? A balanced score card is defined as Ã¢â¬Å" a strategic planning and management system used to align business activities to the vision statement of an organizationÃ¢â¬ in more simple and realistic terms a balance score card attempts to translate the sometimes vague, hopes of a companies mission statement in to the practicalities od managing the business better at every level. To produce your own balance score card you must know and understand: The companies mission statement The companies strategic plan/vision The financial status or the company How the organization is currently structured and operating The level of expertise of their employees Customer satisfaction level. The four perspectives that the Balanced score card generally has are that of: Finance Ã¢â¬â in which covers the following areas: Return on investment Cash flow Return on capital employed Financial results Quarterly/Yearly Internal Business processes Ã¢â¬â which covers the following areas: Number of activities per year Function Duplicate activities across functions Process alignment (is the process in the right dept.)(When the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business processes, quality definitions and measures are aligned to the strategy) Process bottlenecks Process automation (A general technology term that is used to describe any process being automated through the use of computers and computer software. Processes that have been automated require less human intervention and less human time to deliver) Learning and Growth Ã¢â¬â which covers the following areas: Is there the correct level of expertise for the job Employee turnover Job Satisfacti0on Training/Learning opportunities Customer Ã¢â¬â Which covers the following areas: Delivery performance to customer Quality performance for customer Customer satisfaction rate Customer percentage of market Customer retention rate. The benefits of using a balanced score card are that it enables you to see a mixture of financial and non financial measures each compared to a target value within a single concise ( expressing alot of detail in a few wordsÃ¢â¬ ¦) report. Once the Balanced score card is implemented within the organization you should see improved processes. Motivated educated employees Enhances information systems Monitored progress Greater customer satisfaction Increased financial usage. However for any software to work effectively it should be: Compliant with your current technology platform Always accessible to everyone Ã¢â¬â Everywhere Easy to understand/update/communicate The balanced score card is only of good use when available to everyone, not by keeping it hidden. Feedback is essential and should be contributed to by everyone within the business Carol do I need to go on to discuss the 360 degree feedback here?
Monday, July 29, 2019
Effectiveness of Treatment Programs - Research Paper Example Patients having the problems relating to abuse of drugs are treated with the help of introducing and applying various treatment programs for the sole purpose of discontinuation of the use of drugs and other kinds of intoxicating chemicals. Apart from this, treatment programs concerning alcoholism are extensively introduced as well as exploited wherein patients with abnormal drinking habits are assisted through the most advanced measures of treatment that may include different types of exercises and meditation among others. Treatment relating to discontinuation to the habit of smoking is also provided to various patients. In addition to all the above treatment programs, there also exist certain other effectual treatment programs that are implemented in various hospitals and medical centers. In this regard, the other treatment programs embrace psychiatric treatment, wilderness therapy and residential treatment programs among others (Morral, 2006). Concept of Treatment Programs The conc eption of treatment programs aims to provide proper cure to an individual, a patient or a group of patients. It has been apparently observed that different types of treatment programs are provided to the patients for the purpose of providing effective measures for the discontinuation of various sorts of unhealthy practices that might affect the overall health of a person to a drastic level. Furthermore, treatment programs are also implemented so as to provide proper assistance for improving the mental conditions of a patient by a certain degree. There may be different kinds of patients having various problems in relation to psychological aspects. The idea concerning treatment programs especially deals with all the problems that might disrupts the behavioral attitudes of the individuals or the people in the form of students by a greater level. It is worth mentioning that effective treatment programs are designed as well as exploited to provide relief to the patients and help them in sustaining a healthy life (Morral, 2006). Effectiveness of Treatment Programs Treatment programs are structured and implemented to provide proper solutions to various patients having different medical problems that may constitute health along with mental problems. It also constitutes itself with different types of treatment which is provided to the patients so as to help them in discontinuing various types of harmful health practices that might include smoking, drinking alcohol and taking drugs among others. In order to determine the effectiveness of diverse treatment programs, it has been apparently observed that various sorts of treatment programs provide great aid to the patients for leading a healthier life and becoming free from conducting any kind of harmful activity relating to health and psychological problems. Different treatment programs are meant to provide distinct outcomes, but all the outcomes are specifically targeted to focus a common goal i.e. curing the patients. T reatment of a patient lays much importance in his life as it provides him/her the opportunity to start a life afresh. Different treatment programs have been viewed to provide active support to the patients in developing their morale and also raising their self-motivation by a greater level. These programs relating to treatment proves to provide the patients with increased number of health benefits. The introduction along with the execution of diverse treatm
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Religion in colonial America - Essay Example Women were also actively involved in the caring of sick during the epidemic of small pox. Special assembly prayers were held for sick as at one time almost 100 people felt sick every day. This was considered as four times more lethal than the plague, though the city had faced the wrath of fire also. Women along with men however, actively engaged themselves into removing the ruins as well as re-building of the city. (National humanities Center, 2013).Ã Ã While life before revolutionary war was based upon living a typical life where woman was required to focus on the household work, the life during the war was a bit difficult. Those whose husbands had gone to war were made responsible for taking care of their families, while at the same time doing tasks which were mainly male-oriented. Apart from working and caring of the children and elderly, women were active in playing their part n society.Ã It is critical to note however, that women, especially in Boston were subjected to law s which prevented inter-racial marriages. Black women were especially not allowed to marry with the white males and vice versa. These laws actually restricted the freedom and movement of women in choosing their own relationships. This also prevented a widow like me to actually look for re-marriage and enter the new relationships based upon mutual understanding and respect for others.Ã Those who were single or widowed like me tended to perform duties in war besides working as spies. Women who were young.... Women were also actively involved in the caring of sick during the epidemic of small pox. Special assembly prayers were held for sick as at one time almost 100 people felt sick every day. This was considered as four times more lethal than the plague, though the city had faced the wrath of fire also. Women along with men however, actively engaged themselves into removing the ruins as well as re-building of the city. (National humanities Center, 2013). While life before revolutionary war was based upon living a typical life where woman was required to focus on the household work, the life during the war was a bit difficult. Those whose husbands had gone to war were made responsible for taking care of their families, while at the same time doing tasks which were mainly male-oriented. Apart from working and caring of the children and elderly, women were active in playing their part n society. It is critical to note however, that women, especially in Boston were subjected to laws which pr evented inter-racial marriages. Black women were especially not allowed to marry with the white males and vice versa. These laws actually restricted the freedom and movement of women in choosing their own relationships. This also prevented a widow like me to actually look for re-marriage and enter the new relationships based upon mutual understanding and respect for others. Those who were single or widowed like me tended to perform duties in war besides working as spies. Women who were young and physically fit were encouraged to take part in the revolution and contribute towards making things happen. The era before revolution actually helped Boston women to have an improved political understanding of the events and how they could contribute
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Tate Modern topic proposal 200-300 words - Essay Example As it goes with the character of a building intended to house Modern Art, Herzog & de Meuron decided in favour of retaining the quintessentially urban and industrial character of the original building. However, they extended full expression to their creative genius by delicately emphasizing it through the usage of renovations like light paintwork, polished concrete, excellent lighting and unpretentious wooden floors. The result was the creation of an architectural ambience that relied for its originality on the pleasing contrast of the industrial boldness of the original building with the tasteful temperament of the new additions. It would not be wrong to say that the approach of Herzog and de Meuron in the case of Tate Modern was primarily conceptual and not design oriented. In that context, Tate Modern suggests an entire new approach towards architecture that is innovative, believing in extending new meanings and forms to the old through the incorporation of novel trends and creati vity and no doubt pragmatically aspiring for cost effectiveness. Preliminary Bibliography Miles, Malcolm & Hall, Tim (eds.) 2003, Urban Futures, Routledge, London.
Perfect Competition - Essay Example According to the research findings the market with perfect competition is characterized by many small buyers and sellers such that none can influence market conditions; all firms are price takers. The products sold are identical and have close substitutes and this makes it hard for such a condition to be met for in reality, a market has differentiated products due to technological innovations. An example of such products includes agricultural products such as a bushel of wheat. Firms are free to enter or exit the market without any problem and also the factors of production are mobile. The market is also based on the assumption that all the participants have perfect information regarding the prices and quality of products. The buyers thus are able to make choices of the products they want to buy and the producers are aware of what the buyers want hence it is easy to decide on the quantity to produce. Since the participants have perfect information regarding the market and are free to enter and exit at any time, there are no transaction costs incurred in the exchange of goods. The profit maximization of the firms occurs where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost and the market price is equal to marginal cost. Due to these conditions, it is very rare to have perfect competition although technological advancements are driving markets towards such a situation. For example, the trade in currency or money markets where participants are assumed to have perfect information and currency is same regardless of where it is being traded. Another characteristic of such a market is non-existence of externalities. According to Nicholson (2005), perfect competition ensures optimum allocation of resources in the economy. Since price is equal to the marginal cost, consumer and producer surplus can be maximized. If a producer finds that the output is not bring in revenue, he/she can top producing the product and put the resources into more profitable use especially because t here are no barriers to entry or exit. In this situation, no one can be made better off without making someone else worse off. For example, if production of wheat is not profitable, the producer can shift to production of other grains and in the process may lay off some staff and recruit others with the required skills. Competition also pushes prices down and makes the producers to find ways of producing at minimum cost hence productive efficiency is achieved (Geoff, 2006). The supply curve of a perfect market is the marginal cost curve and the demand curve is the price line which is equal to average revenue and marginal revenue. Since the price remains the same regardless of quantity produced, the demand curve is horizontal. In the short run, firms make abnormal profits as total revenue is greater than total costs thus attracting entry of new firms into the market especially due to lack of entry barriers. As firms enter the market, the market supply curve shifts outwards pushing th e prices down consequently lowering the profits by firms. Since each firm earns sufficient revenue to cover variable costs, some firms may shut down to avoid paying variable costs as revenue is low but they still continue paying fixed costs (Mankiw, 2011). The fixed costs
Friday, July 26, 2019
Principl Fetures of Budgeting as a Plnning and Control System - Term Paper Example Ã OperÃ °tionÃ °l control - the process of ensuring thÃ °t specific tÃ °sks Ã °re cÃ °rried out efficiently Ã °nd effectively. It is Ã ° very short term Ã °ctivity for junior mÃ °nÃ °gemen Ã °nd Ã °ddresses their tÃ °rgets for dÃ °y to dÃ °y Ã °ctivity both finÃ °nciÃ °l Ã °nd nonfinÃ °nciÃ °l. There Ã °re substÃ °ntiÃ °l differences between strÃ °tegic plÃ °ns Ã °nd long-term budgets--both in how they Ã °re creÃ °ted Ã °nd in the end products. Very few orgÃ °nizÃ °tions reÃ °lly need Ã ° multiyeÃ °r budget. In fÃ °ct, for mÃ °ny orgÃ °nizÃ °tions, including community bÃ °nks, they cÃ °n sometimes do more hÃ °rm thÃ °n good. How they differ. The function of the budget is to mÃ °intÃ °in, protect, Ã °nd Ã °llocÃ °te the orgÃ °nizÃ °tion's resources. The strÃ °tegic plÃ °n prepÃ °res the bÃ °nk to mÃ °ke future decisions, enÃ °bling it to tÃ °ke Ã °dvÃ °ntÃ °ge of opportunities Ã °s they Ã °rise Ã °nd to Ã °void or lessen t he effects of Ã °dverse developments. The most importÃ °nt difference between the two is in the wÃ °y they influence the bÃ °nk's decision-mÃ °king processes. Community bÃ °nks hÃ °ve two choices: they cÃ °n reÃ °ct to chÃ °nges in the mÃ °rketplÃ °ce Ã °fter they occur, or they cÃ °n Ã °ct now to shÃ °pe the environment they will fÃ °ce in the future. In budgeting, such criticÃ °l issues Ã °re predetermined, either Ã °s finÃ °lized decisions or Ã °s Ã °ssumptions. CentrÃ °l to budgeting is the tÃ °sk of forecÃ °sting levels of loÃ °ns, deposits, Ã °nd revenue. But forecÃ °sting is relÃ °tively unimportÃ °nt in strÃ °tegic plÃ °nning. SimilÃ °rly, the relÃ °tionship between costs Ã °nd revenue generÃ °tion must be Ã °ssumed in budgeting. In strÃ °tegic plÃ °nning, such relÃ °tionships Ã °re Ã °t best Ã ° secondÃ °ry considerÃ °tion.Ã True strÃ °tegic plÃ °nning encompÃ °sses no such Ã °ttempt to predetermine decisions. InsteÃ °d, it provides Ã ° guide or frÃ °mework within which future decision mÃ °king will tÃ °ke plÃ °ce. It emphÃ °sizes longer rÃ °nge objectives, not so much in terms of specific finÃ °nciÃ °l performÃ °nce, but in terms of where Ã °nd how the firm will position itself with respect to customers, regulÃ °tors, employees, product types, technology, Ã °nd the community. For exÃ °mple, Ã ° bÃ °nk locÃ °ted in Ã °n Ã °reÃ ° where the demogrÃ °phics Ã °re chÃ °nging substÃ °ntiÃ °lly mÃ °y need to reposition itself by developing new products Ã °nd services Ã °nd corresponding outreÃ °ch efforts to meet the shifting needs of the community.Ã
Thursday, July 25, 2019
An IT security consultant - Essay Example This paper will explain four methodologies and how they can be used to protect an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s system from being vulnerable. Firewall A firewall is the first in line of a networkÃ¢â¬â¢s defense mechanisms, which can either be a software application or hardware device. It keeps unauthorized people from accessing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s network by blocking selected outbound or inbound traffic (Vacca 2009). Depending on the implemented type, the firewall allows the network administrator to determine the traffic to be let out or in of the network, and also restricted to specific domain names or IP addresses. There are four firewall mechanisms including application gateway, proxy server, circuit level gateway and packet filtering gateway. With the packet filter, traffic flow into or out of the network is intercepted and evaluated against the rules given by the administrator. Filtering is based on the criteria that the packet filter is able to access the destination and source ports, as well as their IP addresses (Christey 2007). The circuit level gateway bars all inward traffic to any other host, with the exclusion of itself. The client machines within the organization and the circuit level gateway establish connectivity via software run on the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ machines. ... The application gateway is a type of proxy server. After internal clients connect to it, it determines whether or not to establish the connection, then connects to the destination machine. All communications are routed from the client to the application gateway, then application gateway to destination machine. Since the gateway is the address viewed by the outside world, the internal network is kept safe. Encryption Encryption is the process of converting information in a way that cannot be understood by unauthorized people (Ardi, Byers & Shahmehri 2006). The information is converted into an unreadable form called ciphertext, and decryption is required to convert it back into its initial for by the recipient. During encryption, the information is encoded into ciphertext using encryption algorithms. An encryption key determines the way the information is encoded. Encryption schemes require algorithms for key-generation in order to produce keys randomly. By use of a decryption algorith m that needs the correct secret decryption key, the authorized party can decode the ciphertext. Key algorithms undo the encryption algorithmsÃ¢â¬â¢ work. Encryption protects data both in transit and at rest (Zittrain 2008). Data in transit comprises that being transferred across networks like mobile phones or the internet. Data at rest includes files stored on storage devices and computers. Encryption makes it difficult to intercept data on transit, while securing that which cannot be physically kept from being accessed by unauthorized persons. In the case of data at rest, it remains safe in incidents of laptop and back up devices theft. The safest practice is to apply encryption at the time of
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Case Study - Research Proposal - Essay Example This diminishes their quality of life and increase health care costs even though early detection can either prevent or lessen or postpone some of the emotional social and debilitating physical effects that these impairments have on the older people (Parmeleet al, 1992). The major key issue that I have encountered in this field is that those who have the responsibility of taking care of the aged always have a negative opinion towards the behavior of the aged people; they claim that, the aged are too demanding and always complaining. In addition to poor memory and loss of important sense which disable them to understand, reason and act as expected and due to these complications they create an unpleasant relationship with nurses in care homes and public in general and this sometimes results in neglect, abuse and mistreatment (Lau et al, 2001). Nursing homes should be located in a serene cool environment free of any form of disturbances and pollution with access to shops public transport and most importantly close to family and friends. It should also be designed such that it contains:- These properties ease work and reduce e stressing conditions experienced by nurses. A nursing home should also contain occupational and recreational facilities for the needs of its residents (Parmeleet al, 1992). ... A nursing home should also contain occupational and recreational facilities for the needs of its residents (Parmeleet al, 1992). There should be also sufficient security to ensure maximum safety and must of course comply with the building regulations and with general fire and safety rules since the homes are required to provide the residents with comfort. A nursing home must ensure that suitable, sufficient, nutrition and a variety of food is provided since dietary restriction on medical or religious grounds must be common also involving the residents in planning meal time and choice of food will reduce the rate of conflicts (Zerhusen et al, 1991) (ii) Education and training Nurse's area very busy due to the amount of work involved in nursing homes and must be in relatively good physical shape. They should also be good in communication skills in order to deal effectively with their patients by practicing good listening and giving clear directions to both patients and aides (Zerhusen et al, 1991). This is essential in dealing with human suffering and emergencies. In addition to fostering mutual understanding between the nurses and aged, the nurses must completely undergo through training in state approved practical nursing programs, which can be offered through community based, and technical programs. Also periodic licensing renewal is essential where the nurses are interviewed and their performance scrutinized and their service record checked (McCurren et al, 1999). In the improvement of prompt service provision new technology has to be implemented and this calls for further training of the nurses in regard to new systems and equipments introduced. Educating the nurses increases their understanding; attitude and insight in
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Race and your Community - Essay Example In short they came in search of a better and more profound life both for themselves as well as their children. They came looking for a life style more enhanced and improved than they had previously been living in their original country of heritage. With the passage of time, my ancestors came to settle in St. Louis, Mo. Whenever one discusses the notion of race, it is essential to discuss the concept of community as well. One cannot exist without the other and both are essential for the survival of any society. Therefore, in the same dictionary, the definition of community is given as, "a group of people living together in one place such that they have the same religion, race etc.; and the people of an area or country considered as a group." It is true that communities originally started off with people of a certain background, a specific guild living together such that they either had their professions, color or ethnicity as a common denominator. Such communities have existed in most parts of USA, until recently. With the advent of globalization, immigration of people to the New World from all over the planet and enhanced awareness of other cultures among the local population, all communities have had to undergo drastic changes. My community is also a part of this modern global society. It is dive rse from the past ones in the sense that people of all racial backgrounds coexist in it. However, it is not to say that communities no longer exist and that groups of people no longer tend to segregate together. They do but in a very different set-up. This is because the common denominators that previously made-up a community, have changed. In my opinion the two basic factors that makes up a community now a days is the monetary resources as well as the age group of people. People with high-income levels usually tend to segregate in a certain area of a city whereas those with less income tend to live in separate neighborhoods or areas of their own. The same may be said for people of different ages groups. The elderly of course live in retirement homes or neighborhoods specifically designed for them. Whereas the young people prefer to live in an area with hip nightclubs and a lot of hustle n' bustle, families with small children will instead try to find a safe and peaceful neighborhoo d with low crime rates. Thus communities still exist but they have taken on a new face that is quite different from any previous one. For a moment, picture the community that I live in. Around where I live there are five churches; each belongs to a different Christian denomination, two synagogues, a Muslim mosque and a Hindu temple. The Buddhists of the area gather together at a member's house to pray. This sufficiently shows that people of all religions have come to dwell and live together in a single community and that religion is no longer a denominator for a community. I personally have friends from all of the aforementioned religious groups. Consider the various ceremonies that these different groups follow, "decorating the hands of the bride with Hennna (Arabian), spreading of rose petals (English), jumping the broom (African), bride wearing numerous robes (Japanese), Bride carrying lump of sugar to signify sweet life (Greek) etc. (http://www.slpl.org/slpl/interests/article240109217.asp) Thus, when one goes to a wedding in our community you can be
Monday, July 22, 2019
Affirmative Action PRO vs. CON Essay The 108th Congress of the United States brought up the debate of whether to allow public institutions to adopt the Affirmative Action, allowing minorities to have higher opportunities than the majority. Although no specific stand was approached, it clearly shows the growing interest of people on the act of Affirmative Action. I am pro Affirmative Action when dealing with public institutions. However, I believe a private institution should practice equality. Affirmative Action compensates for the past faults and biased treatments toward minorities, provides ample opportunities to unprivileged people who currently cant be accepted to institutions, and could rid of the biased view many people still have on minorities. Looking back on American history, we can clearly see many prejudiced acts and viewpoints towards the minorities. The most obvious example is with African Americans. Now at present times, Affirmative Action can and will compensate to a degree the hurts and pains minorities suffered. Although people call America the land of opportunity, many people, consisting largely of minorities, never get a chance to succeed. Many colleges screen applicants with a biased standard, calling it tradition. Companies and institutions prevent employees from receiving full privileges, shouting company regulations. Affirmative Action can tear down those obstacles and false standards giving those underprivileged new opportunities. When Asians fluctuated to the United States during the gold rush, many locals responded violently thinking they will take all the jobs there were. Even today, a number of people still hold biased views toward the minorities. It is evident on the existing practices of the Ku Klux Klan. Affirmative Action can change much of those biased views and allow the minorities to be accepted in the eyes of others. Although Affirmative Action should apply to public institutions, equality should be practiced in private institutions. Equal treatments should allow others to participate on making a non-discriminatory system. Equality, not favoritism, should be standards on private institutions. However, on the overall view, I stand pro on Affirmative Action.
Respectable pharmacist Essay In some point in time, an individual encounters a crossroad in his life. I have been in a few and those influenced my current decision to pursue the degree of pharmacy. I hopped from one job to another in the last few years. I have experienced working in retail, became a massage therapist, a medical assistant, a medical coder and lastly, being employed at a pharmacy. Among the jobs that I have mentioned, my undertaking in the pharmacy was most fulfilling. From observing a respectable pharmacist, I was inspired by the way he works. I believe that the task of a pharmacist does not end by merely helping the patients understand the prescriptions. A pharmacist is also dedicated in making sure that the medications are effective in curing the patients. It is also very challenging to know that being a pharmacist entails big responsibility in dispensing medications. I came to realize that my mind and my heart belong to the cradle of pharmacy through all these. I am aware that in order to be qualified in a prestigious school like the Touro College, a good set of grades is needed but when I was still studying my undergraduate degree, I failed to handle my priorities. I was working to be able to get through my expenses. Thus, I was not able to set my focus on my studies alone. Still, I decided to continue my schooling despite the result of having a low GPA. The said experience taught me well that I should know how to strike a balance in the aspects of my life. I managed to accomplish my BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree and from then on, I realized that I should not dwindle with the time to learn. A low GPA does not necessarily mean that a person is of weak character. I will not be easily swayed off by incoming events that will cause me difficulty when I am already in the College of Pharmacy. If and when I will be given a chance to pursue the degree of Pharmacy, I will not put to waste the opportunity. I know that the education that I will gain will help improve my personality and outlook in life. I am the kind of person who will definitely go for the goal, fight for it so that I will be able to win.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Violent Crime Throughout History Criminology Essay From the beginning of human life, violent crime has been an issue that society has had to deal with. Violent crime destroys the lives of innocent people. In order for people to live in peace, it is important that society finds a way to decrease violent criminal behavior. Society continually puts restraints in place as a means of deterring violent crime. These restraints are based on theories as to how violent behavior is derived and controlled. Before we can successfully deter criminal behavior, we must first understand the minds of those that commit these crimes. Social organizational theories suggest that the criminal mind evolves from its environment. Statistically, there is some truth to this, because crime is more dominant in urban, low income geographic areas with weak community controls. Theorists, Clifford Shaw and Henry Mckay (1972), Note the format for multiple authors, described socially disorganized neighborhoods as brimming with attitudes and values conductive to delinquency and crime, which provided pathways to adult crime. Social disorganization is described by social scientist, Robert Bursik (1988), this is the citation format for a single author as the capacity of a neighborhood to regulate itself through formal and informal processes of social control. This criminal behavior sometimes becomes violent and is passed down from one generation to the next, which provides the continuation to its same geographic location. Violent criminal behavior is prevalent in areas that have a high rate of crime. Marvin Wolfgang (1958) found that most non-premeditated homicides, not caused by mental disease or defect, occur mostly among members of certain social groups living in certain neighborhoods. He also attributed most perpetrators as being young, nonwhite, lower-class males who share a value system, that conduct norms of a subculture of violence. (Wolfgang and Ferracuti, 1967, p. 276) If the quote is more than 40 words or more you do not use quotes. You block the quote, starting on a new line and indenting five spaces from the left margin on each line and double spacing. When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference in the reference list. Most perpetrators value their social status in the community more than human life. Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967) explained the thoughts of some perpetrators as its either him or me. Violence is used as a means of survival in some disorganized neighborhoods. This makes violent crime extremely hard to combat. Social organizational theories lend support to many different ways of deterring and combating violent crimes. Community policing can be directed to those areas that have many violent crimes reducing social disorder at the neighborhood level. Such neighborhoods can form groups, and separate themselves from gangs and violent crowds, categorizing such behavior as deviant and unacceptable to society. Gerald Suttles (1968) referred to such communities as defended neighborhoods. The Wilson and Kelling, (1982) broken window theory also reflects ways of deterring crime by cosmetically cleaning up a disorganized community, to instill pride in its inhabitants. Some communities are also installing gates and guards to keep the criminal element out. All of these deterrents are effective ways to combat violent crimes, but none will entirely eliminate them. Although statistics definitely reinforce social organizational theories, they definitely undermine a persons free will to commit a violent crime. There are people that come from disorganized communities that become successful and do not turn to crime, just as there are murderers and rapists that come from high class neighborhoods. Violent criminal behavior is not always passed down through generations. If a persons environment is responsible for the crimes that they commit, why is a person punished for their crimes? Is violent behavior a byproduct of ones environment, or is it the behavior learned or is its consequences not learned from their parents, peers, teachers, etc.? These are all questions that we struggle to find answers to that would help future endeavors in combating and deterring violent crime. Social Process Theories: Here we are given notice that the topic is changing substantially Theories that explain criminal behavior as learned behavior are considered social process theories. According to sociologist Edwin L. Sutherland (1950), criminal behavior is learned and most learning occurs within intimate personal groups. This has become known as the differential association theory. According to Ronald Akers (1985), learned criminal behavior is acquired or conditioned by the effects, outcomes, or consequences it has on the persons environment. This is accomplished through a persons punishments and reinforcements (rewards or avoided punishments). F. Ivan Nye (1958) described criminal activity from juvenile delinquents as being attributed to family-level punishments and restrictions, affection with parents, their conscience, and the availability of the means to gratify needs. Recently, young males are responsible for a good portion of not only crimes, but violent crimes. Violent crimes are a true concern to the public. Social process theories suggest that violent behavior may be learned from a persons peers or parents. Gang members form close-knit groups and may influence their peers to commit violent crimes. These theories also suggest that a child learns behavior from his or her parents. This can attribute to domestic violence, which has been proven to be spread from one generation to the next in many cases. According to social process theories, children must learn that violence is deviant in society and they must have proper parental guidance and reinforcement from peers. One way to combat violent criminal behavior is through the social bonding theory. According to Travis Hirschi (1972) The bond of affection for conventional persons is a major deterrent to crime. A social bond is the forces in a persons environment that connects them to society and its morality. The social bond theory is based on such key elements as attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. This theory can be applied by parental guidance, affection, and by incorporating community programs for children. Law enforcement officials can interact with troubled children, having a positive influence on them. DARE, Drug Abuse Resistance Education, and GREAT, Gang Resistance Education and Training are two examples of programs based on social process theories. Although effectiveness is debated, with some refinement, these programs may possibly have a profound effect on criminal behavior amongst juveniles. Social process theories offer some good ideas behind the cause of criminal behavior and ways to correct or deter it, but they definitely dont cover all crimes, especially some of those considered to be violent. Social process theories do not give much account for individual motives as to why crimes are committed. They do little to explain crimes of passion, and other violent crimes committed by people that were never exposed to such criminal behavior as a child. Travis Hirshci (1969), suggests that criminality is more or less naturally present, that it requires socialization for its control. Social learning theories suggest that criminal behavior is learned rather than naturally present. Conclusion: Your paper should end with a conclusionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦usually your summary and any opinion of your findings. (avoid writing in the first person) Although different, social organizational and social process theories are similar in some aspects. Social organizational theories explain criminal or violent behavior as a product of ones environment. This is true in a way that the criminal behavior is learned through the people which surround them, which reflects views of social process theories. Sheldon Glueck (1950) refers to this as birds of a feather flock together. People are influenced by their surroundings either positively or negatively. This attributes to their upbringing. Statistics prove that someone from a good upbringing is less likely to become involved in crime. Criminal behavior leads to violent crime. One is very rarely present without the other. One example of this is that people on drugs will do what ever can to get a hold of drugs. When the regard for themselves and others diminishes, violent crime will occur. Both of these sets of theories are true in many aspects about the cause of crime. They both also provide us useful ways of combating and deterring crime. All theories are useful, but no one theory successfully explains all criminal behavior and the best way to deter it. In order to successfully deter violent crime, we must look at all of these theories and combat crime from all angles. Once we better understand the minds behind violent crime, we will do better in combating and deterring it.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Philosophy of Education I spent some time looking back upon my time in elementary, junior high and high school and thinking about all of my favorite teachers, and what exactly made them such outstanding, inspiring educators. I came to several conclusions. A good teacher is one who can not only show a student how to add four and seven, but also help them see why it is important for them to know how to do so. A good teacher is one who can explain to a child the process of photosynthesis while at the same time instilling an appreciation for the beauty of a flower. A good teacher is one who can accept and cherish a hug from a child and conveniently overlook the muddy handprints left on her skirt. I feel that successful teaching is made of several components that build upon and complement each other. Love and discipline, understanding and encouragement, and patience and persistence constitute a pyramid for the educational process. The foundation of teaching should be love and discipline. In order to promote a safe environment that is conducive to learning, teachers must establish classroom rules that are few but fair. It is the teacher's responsibility to enforce those rules without prejudice or without favoring one student over another. I agree with the existentialist philosophy that students should be taught to take full responsibility for their own actions. However, discipline--or any other facet of teaching, for that matter--is useless without love. It has been said that people do not care how much you know until they know how much you care. I believe that has a definite application in the field of teaching. A teacher who does not show his or her students that rules and regulations are for their benefit, not to stifle or di... ..., it is the teacher's responsibility to be a positive role model, both on and off the school grounds. Teachers should strive to model integrity, kindness, and determination. I have a passion for teaching and a desire to be, among many things, a mend, encouragement, and inspiration to my students. My future educational plans include the pursuit of a Bachelor of Arts degree in English/Writing and a Bachelor of Science degree in Secondary Education and possibly return to school to obtain a Masters degree in Education as well. My ideal teaching position would be as English teacher at the school from which I graduated, Rainelle Christian Academy, but teaching at a public school is certainly not out of the question for me either. If the title can be attained through hard work, compassion, persistence, and motivation, I will one day be called someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"favorite teacher.Ã¢â¬
Friday, July 19, 2019
Dr. Frankenstein, Science,Technology and Ethics There is nothing more profound about the topic of science and technology than its ability to be a partner in helping to save lives. It is so influencial in coming up with the latest drugs to combat harmful and even deadly diseases and viruses such as AIDS, and some cancers. We are where we are today because of the remarkable innovations in science and technology. The idea that lives can be saved from such innovations as a new flu vaccine, or a new type of antibiotic that can battle chicken pox, and many other diseases. Its all about the advancements that we get from science and technology that let us live the way we do. Now, we dont have to worry about dying from the chicken pox or another once deadly disease. Its gotten so advanced that women can now get a morning after pill to stop the fertilization of an egg , so that she wont get pregnant. This type of technology was not around twenty years ago. Its now time to start taking into consideration how they are going about testing thes e newly invented vaccines or studies to get their results. Are the scientists going about getting their results in a moral way? At what cost is it that we are getting these great advancements? These are the questions that we need answered. For me personally, having been born three months early, I cant thanks science and technology enough. If it wasnt for the advancements in technology in the early eighties, I probably would not have survived, or worse, I would have had some disabilities such as Muscular Distrophy, retardation, or something even worse. I was lucky to have been born in one of the nations top neo-natal hospitals at the time, Portland Maine Medical Center, in Portland, Maine. If I had be... ...ant please everyone. No matter what you do, someone is bound to have a beef with it. Scientists need to be given the credit they deserve. They slave hours upon hours in labs coming up with such great and magnificant things that make our lives a lot more managable; whether it be the antibiotic that can cure the common cold, which they havent quite mastered yet, or a life saving treatment that can battle a deadly disease, such as stem cells. Advancements in science and technology are only going to get better. Lets hope that their techniques for research and experimentation are going to advance with them. Who knows, maybe one day we will come up with a control testing object that can be used to do any type of research and experiments on. Hey, its a suggestion! Works Cited Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. The Presence of Others. Andrea A. Lunsford and John J. Ruszki
Cubism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Before the twentieth century, art was recognized as an imitation of nature. Paintings and portraits were made to look as realistic and three-dimensional as possible, as if seen through a window. Artists were painting in the flamboyant fauvism style. French postimpressionist Paul CÃ ©zannes flattened still lives, and African sculptures gained in popularity in Western Europe when artists went looking for a new way of showing their ideas and expressing their views. In 1907 Pablo Picasso created the painting Les Damsoilles d'Avignon, depicting five women whose bodies are constructed of geometric shapes and heads of African masks rather then faces. This new image grew to be known as 'cubism'. The name originating from the critic Louis Vauxcelles, who after reviewing French artist and fellow Cubist Georges Braque exhibition wrote of 'Bizzeries Cubiques', and that objects 'had been reduced to cubes (Arnheim, 1984). Cubism changed the way art was represented and viewed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Picasso, together with Braque, presented a new style of painting that showed the subject from several different angles simultaneously. The result was intended to show the object in a more complete and realistic view than traditional art, to convey a feeling of being able to move around within the painting. ?Cubism abandoned traditional notions of perception, foreshadowing and modeling and aimed to represent solidarity and volume in a three-dimensional plane without converting the two-dimensional canvas illusionalistically into a three-dimensional picture space? (Chivers, 1998). Picasso and Braque pioneered the movement and worked so closely together that they had difficulty telling their own work apart. They referred to each other as Orville and Wilbur, knowing that their contributions to art were every bit as revolutionary as the first flight (Hoving, 1999). Cubism was divided into two categories. Analytical Cubism, beginning in 1907, visually laid out what the artist thought was important about the subject rather then just mimicking it. Body parts and objects within the picture were broken down into geometric shapes that were barley recognizable as the original image. Braque wrote that ?senses deform and the spirit forms?. Analytical Cubism restricted the use of color to simple and dull hues so the emphasis would lie more on the structure. CÃ ©zanne said, ?nature should be ... ...ople a different perspective with which to look at reality and evoked new emotions. Cubism set a new standard for what is accepted as a work of art. ?Art no longer had to be aesthetically right or nice to be a masterpiece?(Hoving, 1999). It also set the stage for other artists to test new styles that would have been considered too unorthodox before. Cubism truly embodied the phrase, ?art is in the eye of the beholder.? Bibliography Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception, a psychology of the creative eye. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Los Angelas: University of California Press, 1984. Arnheim, Rudolf. Visual Thinking. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Los Angelas: University of California Press, 1984. Chilvers, Ian, Harold Osborne, Dennis Farr. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Hoving, Thomas. Art for Dummies. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Foster City California: IDG Books Worldwide, 1999. Miki, Tamon. What is Cubism? The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã www.cubistic.com. November 29,1999. Robinson, Walter. Instant Art History, from cave art to pop art. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã New York: Bryon Press Visual Publications, 1995. Schaffner, Ingrid. The Essential Picasso. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã New York: Harry
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Throughout the Odyssey, the lead character, Odysseus, is presented as the ideal Greek leader. He demonstrates this through the treatment of his men and how he deals with problems that are presented to him. Because the Odyssey was first a spoken myth, it took on the shape of the society in which it was told. Including that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s moral and ethical values, as well as its desires in the traits of a leader. A leader must first be defined, then set apart from other potential leaders, then the leader must be tested through his actions, only then can a definite leader be defined. First, one must define the ideal Greek leader. An ideal Greek leader commands the respect of those being led, but also gives respect. He must be intelligent and cunning, and able to think logically with the intentions of keeping the well being of those under him. Reverence to the gods is mandatory, as they are viewed as the supreme leaders. An ideal leader must have an ability to lead a military victoriously, but also know when military action is not necessary. There are many other traits that the ideal Greek leader must possess, but none are as important as those that have been listed. Another way of proving Odysseus as the ideal leader is by contrasting him with other leaders. Two other characters in the book that could be considered character foils are Antinoos and Alkinoos, two very different leaders. Alkinoos, King of the Phaeacians, is presented as leader who is open to outsiders, another trait that is revered in ancient Greek culture. When he provides the hospitality to Odysseus, he shows his welcoming manner by not only allowing Odysseus to stay as his guest, but also taking him back to Ithaca. Ã¢â¬Å"When you came here to my strong home, Odysseus, under my tall roof, headwinds were left behind you. Clear sailing shall you have now, homeward nowÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (XIII, 4-7) Alkinoos can be considered a foil that showsÃ what Homer viewed as a good leader. Antinoos, on the other hand, was almost the opposite. The suitor spent his time unsuccessfully enticing Penelope, one of many things that Homer could have considered to be a bad trait, especially when possess ed by a leader, which is something that Antinoos could be considered in his relationship with the other suitors. He was also the suitor who came up with the scheme to kill Telemachus. Furthermore, Antinoos being the first to die when Odysseus returns, could be presented as HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment of the iniquitous suitor of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. These two characters can be considered the two extremes in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s view of a leader. OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s actions throughout the book demonstrate the traits that make him a good leader. Through his decisions in these specific events, he proves that he is a good, but not perfect, leader. First, his decision to send men to scout out KirkeÃ¢â¬â¢s house was one of pleasure, not conquest. Odysseus did not need to send his men probing the unfamiliar island, but still felt it necessary. This decision is one that had to be made, but given past experiences, the reader would expect Odysseus to choose otherwise, especially when his men felt hesitant. Ã¢â¬Å"They were all silent, but their hearts contracted, remembering Antiphates the Laistrygon and that prodigious cannibal, the KyklopesÃ¢â¬ ¦ But seeing our time for action lost in weeping, I mustered those Akhaians under arms, counting them off in two platoons, myself and my godlike Eurylokhos commanding.Ã¢â¬ (X, 217-224) It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until after the first party fell prey to KirkeÃ¢â¬â¢s elixir that Odysseus shows his true leadership. With the aid of the gods, he is able to free his men from living as swine. Although he stays long after he has freed his men, nearly a year, he felt the obligation towards his men by undoing KirkeÃ¢â¬â¢s acts and freed them from her hold. Another instance when Odysseus demonstrates his leadership ability is when he is faced with the escape from PolyphemusÃ¢â¬â¢s cave. His quick thinking and strategic approach gave him victory over the giant, two traits Homer emphasizes in Odysseus. Odysseus is able to lead his men to blind the Kyklops, but shows how no mortal man can be perfect, no matter how heroic, by shouting back at Polyphemus and telling him who had truly blinded him. Finally, OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s similarity to some of the known leaders of ancient GreeceÃ can be used to express how Odysseus was presented as the ideal Greek leader. The first of whom being the democratic leader of Athens, Pericles, and second being Alexander the Great. Pericles was much like Odysseus in a sense of his ability to manipulate and influence those under him, a necessary skill in any democratic society. He was able to influence the other elected officials into believing what he wanted, and stemmed his success from that ability. Although not an especially admirable trait, the ability to influence men into what is needed to be done in the eyes of the leader is most certainly necessary, especially when it involves military authority. Alexander the GreatÃ¢â¬â¢s decisiveness is paralleled only by Odysseus, which is another trait that all strong leaders must possess. Another element to a leader that is often present is that of arrogance, as Alexander the Great believed himself to be half immortal, and held himself in comparison with Hercules. Alexander was even known to sleep with copies of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s books under his pillow, and drew heavy influence from HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s characters, including Odysseus. Odysseus is considered to be one of the greatest mythological heroic leaders. Not only is he presented as the model for the ideal Greek leader, but has influenced many other leaders throughout history, including Alexander the Great. Odysseus was a model for ancient Greek leaders, and still influences our views of leadership today, although we may not even notice it.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
AbstractionRipples atomic number 18 mathematical maps that cut up entropys into some(prenominal)(predicate) frequence constituents, and so take a offset each constituent with a declaration matched to its graduated put off. They view advantages over tralatitious Fourier methods in analysing physical state of affairss where the prefigure contown(prenominal)s discontinuities and crisp spikes. Ripples were developed independently in the Fieldss of mathematics, quantum ingrained philosophies, electrical technology, and seismal geology. Interchanges mingled with these Fieldss during the last 10 old ages have led to numerous new tattle applications much(prenominal)(prenominal) as soma compaction, turbulency, forgiving tidy sum, radio detection and ranging, and temblor anticipation. This news report introduces blabs to the interested proficient mortal asideside(a) of the digital bodeise processing cogitation. I describe the history of prances get toss off with Fourier, comp atomic number 18 strut substitutes with Fourier qualifys, province belongingss and other(a) particular facets of knits, andCoating with some interest applications such as attribute compaction, musical theater roll in the haydy t peerlesss, and de-noising swishy instructions.1. IntroductionA guggle is a roll up-like bike with amplitude that starts out at zero, additions, and so decreases covering fire to nothing. It squeeze out typic tout ensembley be visualized as a draft oscillation like one cause collide with recorded SeismographOr philia proctor. Gener all(prenominal)y, prances argon purposefully crafted to hold particularized belongingss that make them helpful for signal processing. Ripples slew be combined, utilizing a displacement, multiply and substance proficiency called whirl, with parts of an hidden signal to pull out development from the unk at one timen signal. peachs provide an alternate attack to traditional signal process ing techniques such as Fourier epitome for interrupting a signal up into its component parts. The drive drift stinker babble analytic thinking is their belongings of being localised in reduce ( measureless ) every snap good as graduated table ( frequence ) . This provides a time-scale map of a signal, enabling the stemma of characteristics that vary in fit out. This makes wavelets an ideal bill for analyzing signals of a transient or non-stationary nature.2. HistoryThe emergence of wavelets can be linked to several(prenominal) separate trains of idea, get downing with Haar s spurt in the early ordinal century. Noteworthy parts to wavelet speculation can be attributed to Zweig s sense of the uninterrupted crumple transfigure in 1975 ( originally called the cochlear transform and discovered plot of ground analyzing the reaction of the ear to heavy(a) ) , Pierre Goupillaud, Grossmann and Morlet s preparation of what is now known as the CWT ( 1982 ) , Jan-Olov Str & A ouml mberg s early work on distinct blithers ( 1983 ) , Daubechies extraneous prances with compact clog up ( 1988 ) , Mallat s multiresolution model ( 1989 ) , Nathalie Delprat s time-frequency recital of the CWT ( 1991 ) , Newland s Harmonic ripple transform ( 1993 ) and m all others since.First ripple ( Haar ripple ) by Alfred Haar ( 1909 )Since the 1970s George Zweig, Jean Morlet, Alex GrossmannSince the mid-eighties Yves Meyer, St & A eacute phane Mallat, Ingrid Daubechies, Ronald Coifman, Victor Wickerhauser3. wavelet THEORY riffle guess is applicable to several topics. All ripple transforms may be considered signifiers of time-frequency representation for continuous-time ( correspond ) signals and so argon related to sympathetic analytic thinking. Al intimately all practically utile distinct ripple transforms use discrete-time distort Bankss. These filter Bankss atomic number 18 called the ripple and measure coefficients in ripples nomenclature. These filt er Bankss may stop either finite passion repartee ( FIR ) or unnumberable impulse solution ( IIR ) filters. The ripples organizing a uninterrupted ripple transform ( CWT ) atomic number 18 equal to the dubiousness rule of Fourier analysis single trying system Given a signal with some event in it, one can non delegate at the uniform time an exact clip and frequence response graduated table to that event. The merchandise of the uncertainnesss of clip and frequence response graduated table has a overturn edge. Therefore, in the scale gm of a uninterrupted ripple transform of this signal, such an event marks an full part in the time-scale plane, alternatively of scarcely one point. Besides, distinct ripple bases may be considered in the context of other signifiers of the uncertainness rule. Wavelet transforms are loosely divided up into three categories uninterrupted, distinct and multiresolution-based.Above shown plot shows all CWT ( Continuous Wavelet ) , DWT ( Discrete Wavelet ) . These all varies with the clip and degree and all graphs obtained are supra shown.4. WAVELET TRANSFORMSThere are a oversize figure of ripple transforms each desirable for contrastive applications. For a full magnetic inclination see list of wavelet-related transforms but the reciprocal 1s are listed belowContinuous ripple transform ( CWT )Discrete ripple transform ( DWT )Fast ripple transform ( FWT )Raising strategyWavelet tract bunk ( WPD )Stationary ripple transform ( SWT )5. WAVELET PACKETSThe ripple transform is really a subset of a far more various transform, the ripple big bucks transform. Wavelet packages are unique elongate combinations of ripples. They form bases which retain many of the perpendicularity, smoothness, and localisation belongingss of their parent ripples. The coefficients in the additive combinations are computed by a recursive algorithm doing each freshly computed ripple package coefficient sequence the root of its ain analysis tree.6. WAVELETS IN MATLABWavelet tool chest package extends the MATLAB proficient calculating environment with in writing(p) tools and command-line maps for developing wavelet-based algorithms for the analysis, synthesis, denoising, and compaction of signals and patterns. Wavelet analysis provides more precise learning just rough signal informations than other signal analysis techniques, such as Fourier. The Wavelet Toolbox bet ons the synergistic geographic expedition of ripple belongingss and applications. It is utile for language and sound processing, design and picture processing, biomedical imagination, and 1-D and 2-D applications in communications and geophysical sciences.7. WAVELETS VS FOURIER TRANSFORMEach and every thing in this universe comparable to it has some similarities and unsimilarities with that identical is the instance with the ripples and Fourier transform. Ripples can be compared with the Fourier transform on the priming of their similarities and unsimila rities which are explained as follows. Assorted sorts of similarities and unsimilarities of ripples and Fourier transform are as follows.7.1 SIMILARITIES BETWEEN FOURIER AND WAVELET TRANSFORMSThe fast Fourier transform ( FFT ) and the distinct ripple transform ( DWT ) are both additive operations that reach a information construction that containssegments of assort lengths, normally make fulling and transforming it into a different informations vector of length. The mathematical belongingss of the matrices involved in the transforms are similar as good. The revert transform matrix for both the FFT and the DWT is the reassign of the original. As a moment, both transforms can be viewed as a circle motion in map infinite to a different welkin. For the FFT, this new sphere contains cornerstone maps that are wickednesss and cosines. For the ripple transform, this new sphere contains more complicated footing maps called ripples, female parent ripples, or analysing ripples. some(p renominal) transforms have another similarity. The basic maps are localized in frequence, doing mathematical tools such as power spectra ( how much power is contained in a frequence detachment ) and scale gms ( to be defined afterward ) utile at picking out frequences and ciphering power distributions.7.2 DISSIMILARITIES BETWEEN FOURIER AND WAVELET TRANSFORMSThe most fire unsimilarity between these dickens sorts of transforms is that single ripple maps arelocalized in space.Fourier sine and cosine maps are non. This localisation characteristic, on with ripples localisation of frequence, makes many maps and performers utilizing ripples thin when change into the ripple sphere. This spareness, in bend, consequences in a figure of utile applications such as informations compaction, observing characteristics in images, and taking dissonance from clip series. One manner to see the time-frequency declaration differences between the Fourier transform and the ripple transform is t o look at the footing map coverage of the time-frequency plane. The square piteous ridge window truncates the sine or cosine map to suit a window of a bizarre breadth. Because a individual window is utilize for all frequences in the WFT, the declaration of the analysis is the same at all locations in the time-frequency plane.8. WAVELET APPLICATIONSThere are assorted sorts of applications in the field of ripples which are as follows can be explained as followsComputer and Human VisionFBI Fingerprint CompressionDenoising creaky DataMusical Tones8.1 COMPUTER AND HUMAN VISIONIn the early 1980s, David Marr began work at MIT s Artificial news program Laboratory on unreal day-dream for automatons. He is an expert on the compassionate opthalmic system and his end was to study why the first efforts to build a automaton overt of understanding its milieus were unsuccessful. Marr believed that it was of merchandise to set up scientific foundations for vision, and that while making so one moldiness restrict the range of probe by excepting everything that depends on preparation, civilization, and so on, and concentrate on the mechanical or nonvoluntary facets of vision. This low vision is the portion that enables us to existing the 3-dimensional organisation of the physical universe virtually us from the exc factents that stimulate the retina. He so developed working algorithmic solutions to reception each of these inquiries. Marr s theory was that image processing in the human ocular system has a complicated ranked construction that involves several beds of processing. At each treating degree, the retinal system provides a ocular representation that scales increasingly in a geometrical mode. His statements hinged on the sensing of authorization alterations. He theorized that position alterations occur at different graduated tables in an image, so that their optimum sensing requires the usage of operators of different sizes. He besides theorized that sudd en strength alterations produce a extremum or trough in the first derived hold out of the image. These two hypotheses require that a vision filter have two features it should be a differential operator, and it should be capable of being tuned to move at any coveted graduated table. Marr s operator was a ripple that today is referred to as a Marr ripple. 8.2 FBI FINGERPRINT COMPRESSIONBetween 1924 and today, the US national Bureau of Investigation has collected round 30 cardinal sets of reproduces. The arc stack away consists in the first place of inked feelings on paper cards. Facsimile scans of the feelings are distributed among jurisprudence enforcement bureaus, but the digitisation flavor is frequently low. Because a figure of sound powers are experimenting with digital storage of the prints, usual exclusivenesss between informations formats have late suffer a prank. This patronage led to a demand in the condemnable impartiality community for a digitisation and a com paction criterion. In 1993, the FBI s guilty Justice Information Services form developed criterions for fingerprint digitisation and compaction in cooperation with the tally Institute of Standards and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, commercial sellers, and condemnable justness communities. allow s set the informations storage job in position. Fingerprint images are digitized at a declaration of 500 pels per march with 256 degrees of gray-scale information per pel. A individual fingerprint is about 700,000 pels and demands about 0.6 Mbytes to salt away away. A evoke of custodies, so, requires about 6 Mbytes of storage. So digitising the FBI s current archive would prove in approximately 200 TBs of informations. ( identify that at today s pecuniary values of about $ 900 per Gbyte for hard-disk storage, the cost of hive awaying these uncompressed images would be about 200 million dollars. ) Obviously, informations compaction is of import to convey these Numberss d own.8.3 DENOISING whirring DATAIn diverse Fieldss from planetal scientific discipline to molecular spectrometry, scientists are faced with the job of retrieving a true signal from uncomplete, confirmatory or noisy informations. Can wavelets promote work out this job? The reception is surely yes, through a technique called ripple shrinking and thresholding methods that David Donoho has worked on for several old ages. The technique works in the undermentioned manner. When you decompose a information set utilizing ripples, you use filters that act as averaging filters and others that produce at bottom informations. Some of the ensue ripple coefficients correspond to inside informations in the information set. If the inside informations are little, they susceptibility be omitted without well impacting the chief characteristics of the information set. The thought of thresholding, so, is to put to zero all coefficients that are less than a peculiar threshold. These coefficients a re used in an annihilate ripple transmutation to retrace the information set. Figure 6 is a brace of before and after illustrations of a atomic magnetic resonance ( NMR ) signal. The signal is transformed, threshold and inverse-transformed. The technique is a alpha measure frontward in managing noisy informations because the denoising is carried out without smoothing out the crisp constructions. The consequence is cleaned-up signal that still shows of import inside informations.Fig.8.3.1 displays an image created by Donoho of Ingrid Daubechies ( an active investigate worker in ripple analysis and the discoverer of smooth orthonormal ripples of compact support ) , and so several close-up images of her oculus an original, an image with noise added, and eventually denoised image. To denoise the image, Donohotransformed the image to the ripple sphere utilizing Coiflets with three go away minutes,applied a threshold at two standard divergences, andInverse-transformed the image to the signal sphere.8.4 tuneful TONESVictor Wickerhauser has suggested that ripple packages could be utile in sound synthesis. His thought is that a individual ripple package generator could substitute a big figure of oscillators. with experimentation, a instrumentatealist could find combinations of touching ridge packages that produce particularly interesting sounds. Wickerhauser feels that sound synthesis is a natural usage of ripples. Say one wishes to come close the sound of a musical instrument. A sample of the discovers produced by the instrument could be decomposed into its ripple package coefficients. Reproducing the note would so necessitate recharging those coefficients into a ripple package generator and playing back the consequence. Transient features such as flak and decay- approximately, the strength fluctuations of how the sound starts and ends- could be controlled one at a time ( for illustration, with envelope generators ) , or by utilizing chronic wave pack ages and encoding those belongingss every bit good into each note. Any of these procedures could be controlled in existent clip, for illustration, by a keyboard. Notice that the musical instrument could merely every bit good be a human voice, and the notes words or phonemes.A wavelet-packet-based music synthesist could hive away many complex sounds efficiently becauseripple package coefficients, like ripple coefficients, are largely really little for digital samples of smooth signals andDiscarding coefficients below a shape cutoff introduces merely little mistakes when we are compacting the information for smooth signals.Similarly, a wave packet-based address synthesist could be used to retrace extremely tight address signals. Figure 8.4.1 illustrates a ripple musical tone or toneburst.9. ADVANTAGES OF WAVELET TRANSFORMATIONAdvantages of ripple transmutation are as follows which are discussed below.Space and Time Efficiency ( Low complexity of DWT ) .Generality & A Adaptability ( Different Basis and Wavelet Functions ) .Multiresolution Properties ( Hierarchical Representation & A use ) .Adaptability of the translation ( Different Basis Functions let different Properties of the Transformation )Transformation is Hierarchical ( Multiresolution Properties )Transformation is Loss-FreeEfficiency of the Transformation ( Linear Time and Space complexness for Orthogonal Wavelets )Generalization of the Transformation ( Generalization of other Transformations )CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPEMost of basic ripple theory has been done. The mathematics has been worked out in tormenting item and ripple theory is now in the polish phase. The refinement phase involves generalisations and extensions of ripples, such as widening ripple package techniques. The hereafter of ripples lies in the as-yet chartless partition ofapplications.Wavelet techniques have non been exhaustively worked out in applications such as practical information analysis, where for illustration discret ely sampled time-series informations might necessitate to be analyzed. Such applications offer exciting avenues for geographic expedition. Basically after working on this term paper we came to cognize about the construct of the ripples its relation with the Fourier transform its advantages in shacking universe.Mentionswww.yahoo.com ( a truly friendly gatekeeper to ripples ) .www.google.com ( ripples ppt. ) .www.wikipedia.com ( ripples ) .www.google.com ( Seminar Report on ripples by ROBI POLIKAR )www.google.com ( applications of ripples ) .