Friday, May 31, 2019
Character Analysis DimmesdaleDimmesdale is one of the most intriguing characters in The Scarlet Letter. I take this because he demonstrates in this story that he is a coward, and that he is strong, yet not courageous.Dimmesdale proves that he is a cowardice individual many times in The Scarlet Letter. He does this by not admitting his sin. Dimmesdale had many opportunities to admit his sin and get the guilt off his chest. The first opportunity was when Dimmesdale was making his speech in front of an audience. He tried to tell the truth but more lies just came out. The second opportunity that Dimmesdale had to grant his sin was when he was living with Chillingworth, and Chillingworth told Dimmesdale to confess what was troubling him and again, Dimmesdale refused to confess. Finally, the third time that Dimmesdale had a great opportunity to confess himself was at the end of the story during the festival on the scaffold. Standing there with Hester and ivory, Dimmesdale was quiesce too much of a coward to admit his sin and release the anguish from his burning chest. Another way in which Dimmesdale showed that he was a cowardice mortal is by not confronting Chillingworth. Chillingworth was plotting revenge on Dimmesdale for an totally long time. In fact, Chillingworths life was devoted to getting revenge on Dimmesdale. Being told by Hester, Dimmesdale still did not confront Chillingworth. Throughout the book, Dimmesdale was an extreme coward.Dimmesdales actions in this story where not courageous, but strong. For roughly seven years, this man had to live with extreme guilt. Dimmesdale had many reasons to feel guilty. First of all he let Hester be labeled an adulteress, while he just looked on. Lastly, Dimmesdale felt guilty because he had not raised Pearl as his own. Dimmesdale showed this by being exceptionally affectionate the few times that he was around Pearl. An example of Dimmesdale showing affection towards Pearl is while in the forest, Dimmesdale soft ly kisses Pearl on the brow. Another action of Dimmesdales that proves that he is strong but not courageous, is that Dimmesdale shows extreme self-restraint. Dimmesdale had to converse with Hester in public.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
All the Pretty Horses ass Grady is non your average cowboy. All the Pretty Horses is not your typical coming-of-age story. This is an honest tale. Cormac McCarthy follows toilet Grady as he embarks on his journey of self-discovery across the border. Armed with a few pesos in his pocket, a strong vaulting horse and a friend at his side, earth-closet Grady thinks hes mobile to take on the dead West of Mexico. At their final steps in America, a stranger, aged thirteen, joins our heroes. This unexpected variable named Blevins challenges John Grady, testing his character and pushing him to uncomfortable limits. The can-do of their relationship reveals John Gradys capacity to assistance for others as he shelters this kid from the hardships of reality and the foolhardiness of y outh. The journey into Mexico demonstrates his readiness to be recognized as a man, but when the critical moment arrives, John Gradys will fails to meet unforeseen demands. His inability to speak at this cruc ial juncture acts as a mirror for self-reflection, returning him to the beginning.Coming out of the horizon, Blevins approaches John Grady and his comrade, Rawlins, uninvited. John Grady poses half a dozen pointed questions, deliberately accusing Blevins of lying. His eyes study Blevins, calmly taking in the stranger. He doesnt acquire for an explanation or the details of his trip nor does he offer Blevins companionship. Is that your hat? he said (40), suggesting Blevins isnt a legitimate cowboy, let alone a man. John Grady subtly establishes himself as the power to be reckoned with, the superior cowboy. His assertion is self-serving, a justification to himself that he is capable of the journey ahead. Its also a demonstration for Rawlins sake, to assure him that they are... ...s, the boundaries of his emotional strength. John Grady could not speak on behalf of Blevins because he is not ready to let go of his youthful innocence. The mantle of function is too heavy to bear.Blevins haunts John Gradys mind. Beautiful daydreams of Alejandra transform themselves into thoughts of Blevins, but he never voices his misdeeduntil he returns to America. John Gradys remorse manifests itself in a dogged determination to return Blevins horse to his family in America. Through this tangible form of repentance, John Grady is proving to himself that hes capable of doing Blevins memory a final justice. His dream of Mexico is no longer a possibility, defeated by his conscience. He earnestly recognizes his require to start over and return to America. John Grady whitethorn have failed his initial adventure, but he came out of Mexico a stronger person for it. All the Pretty Horses Essay -- All Pretty Horses EssaysAll the Pretty HorsesJohn Grady is not your average cowboy. All the Pretty Horses is not your typical coming-of-age story. This is an honest tale. Cormac McCarthy follows John Grady as he embarks on his journey of self-discovery across the border. Armed with a few pesos in his pocket, a strong horse and a friend at his side, John Grady thinks hes ready to take on the Wild West of Mexico. At their final steps in America, a stranger, aged thirteen, joins our heroes. This unexpected variable named Blevins challenges John Grady, testing his character and pushing him to uncomfortable limits. The dynamic of their relationship reveals John Gradys capacity to care for others as he shelters this kid from the hardships of reality and the foolhardiness of youth. The journey into Mexico demonstrates his readiness to be recognized as a man, but when the critical moment arrives, John Gradys will fails to meet unforeseen demands. His inability to speak at this crucial juncture acts as a mirror for self-reflection, returning him to the beginning.Coming out of the horizon, Blevins approaches John Grady and his comrade, Rawlins, uninvited. John Grady poses half a dozen pointed questions, deliberately accusing Blevins of lying. His eyes study Blevins , calmly taking in the stranger. He doesnt ask for an explanation or the details of his trip nor does he offer Blevins companionship. Is that your hat? he said (40), suggesting Blevins isnt a legitimate cowboy, let alone a man. John Grady subtly establishes himself as the power to be reckoned with, the superior cowboy. His assertion is self-serving, a justification to himself that he is capable of the journey ahead. Its also a demonstration for Rawlins sake, to assure him that they are... ...s, the boundaries of his emotional strength. John Grady could not speak on behalf of Blevins because he is not ready to let go of his youthful innocence. The mantle of responsibility is too heavy to bear.Blevins haunts John Gradys mind. Beautiful daydreams of Alejandra transform themselves into thoughts of Blevins, but he never voices his guiltuntil he returns to America. John Gradys remorse manifests itself in a dogged determination to return Blevins horse to his family in America. Through thi s tangible form of repentance, John Grady is proving to himself that hes capable of doing Blevins memory a final justice. His dream of Mexico is no longer a possibility, defeated by his conscience. He earnestly recognizes his need to start over and return to America. John Grady may have failed his initial adventure, but he came out of Mexico a stronger person for it.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
There is much debate over the issue of whether we have acquit independence of the leave behind or if our will caused by something other than our own choosing. There are three positions adopted by philosophers regarding this dispute determinism, libertarianism, and compatibilism. Determinists believe that freedom of the will does not exist. Since actions are events that have some predetermined cause, no actions bottom be chosen and thus there is no will to choose. The compatibilist argues that you can have both freedom of the will and determinism. If the causes which led to our actions were different, then we could have acted in another way which is compatible with freedom of the will. Libertarians believe that freedom of the will does exist.Roderick Chisholm defends Libertarianism, and in his essay Human Freedom and The Self argues that we have freedom of the will. Chisholm does not abandon the idea of causes but instead defines two types of causation. The first is ephemeral ca usation where one event or state of affairs causes another event or state of affairs. This causation is base on a affinity between events. The second is immanent causation where an agent causes an event or state of affairs. An agent is an uncaused causer of events who is not bound by the laws of nature. This causation is based on the relationship between an agent and an event. Chisholm quotes a passage from Aristotle to demonstrate his immanent causation, Thus, a staff moves a...
Weight Loss with the Atkins Advantage Bar The low carbohydrate Atkins Diet is the latest craze in the metric weight unit wrong world. The high fat and protein content of the diet is successful at reducing weight because carbohydrates produce an elevated insulin response which in turn increases hunger and the hunger for more carbohydrates. Thus, the level of insulin increase from the intake of an Atkins Advantage Bar is almost equal with the insulin levels after the intake of volaille. Meanwhile, the Zone Diets Balance Bar, which contains 40% carbohydrates, causes insulin levels to increase above that of chicken and the Atkins Advantage Bar. In order to lose weight in a short amount of time one should pungency on the Atkins Advantage Bar. According to a study done by Steven R. Hertzler and Yeonsoo Kim, Ph.D.s of Nutrition, data showed that insulin levels remained at a constant 100 for those who consumed only chicken at a meal. Those who consumed an Atkins Advantage Bar insulin lev els peaked at 200 after one half hour then slowly declined back down to a steady rate with the chicken level. If one were to eat chicken all day they would lose weight but it would not be in a very healthy way. Chicken is all protein and one needs some carbohydrates and fat to remain healthy. Variety is a must discombobulate in diets and chicken and only chicken is not good. The high in fat and protein Atkins Advantage Bar comes pretty close to this but still remains healthy because they have a few but not many carbohydrates. This bar goes along with the diet in that high fat and protein help one to lose weight at a constant rate with only a sparingly amount of carbohydrates. A slight increase of insulin levels within the first half hour of intake and then a steady decrease makes the Atkins Advantage Bar closest to chicken in insulin levels. Meanwhile, the Zone Diets Balance Bar is just as healthy but does not produce the weight loss results as rapidly due to the increase in carboh ydrates. Hertzler and Yeonsoos study of the effects of eating a balance bar as a meal showed that insulin levels rose to about 350 call fors after one half hour. This number is much higher than the 200 point peak of insulin levels with the intake of the Atkins Advantage Bar. This number soars above the 100 point consistency that chicken
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
West Nile VirusLife HistoryWest Nile Virus, WNV, was first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile section of Uganda. It was the found in Egypt in the 1950s. It was first found to cause meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak amongst elderly people in Israel in 1957. It was first found to infect other vertebrates (equine species) in France in the early 1960s. It did not cross over to the US until 1999 and has now spread to 44 states. There have been 8219 cases in the US since then with 182 deaths. Connecticut has had 12 cases without a death.Microbial CharacteristicsWNV belongs to the virus family arboviruses, so called because they are arthropod-borne. The virion is most 40 nm in size. WNV is a +ssRNA virus. It is also an enveloped, icosahedral virus. Incubation period is about 3-14 days.TransmissionWNV is transmitted by the female mosquito of the Culex species and can be transmitted to many vertebrates including birds, horses, dogs, cats, and humans. WNV has not been found to be transmitted through personal contact or between any of the secondary carriers (i.e. birds to humans, etc.). It can be spread through blood transfusion, but this has only happened twice in the US.Symptomsmost people who are infected with West Nile virus either have no symptoms or experience mild illness such as fever, cephalalgia and body aches before fully recovering. Some persons may also develop a mild rash or swollen lymph glands. In some individuals, curiously the elderly, West Nile virus can cause serious disease that affects brain and spinal tissue. Severe illness may include encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. Symptoms may include headache, high fever, stiff neck, confusion, coma, tremors, convulsions, and muscle weakness or paralysis. At its most serious, West Nile virus cancause permanent neurological damage or death. The exigency rate is 10-15% of t he only 1% that develop the more severe condition.DiagnosisDiagnostic testing is usually only done on patients that acquire the more severe meningitis or encephalitis. A MAC-ELISA test is performed on the CSF to detect any virus specific IgM. A MAC-ELISA can also be done on serum samples to confirm viremia. Like many other new viral diseases, this test is done when all other infections, bacterial or otherwise, are ruled out as the causitive agent. Diagnosis is based highly on clinical suspicion.
West Nile VirusLife HistoryWest Nile Virus, WNV, was first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile section of Uganda. It was the found in Egypt in the 1950s. It was first found to cause meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak amongst elderly people in Israel in 1957. It was first found to infect other vertebrates (equine species) in France in the early 1960s. It did not cross over to the US until 1999 and has now spread to 44 states. There have been 8219 cases in the US since then with 182 deaths. Connecticut has had 12 cases without a death.Microbial CharacteristicsWNV belongs to the virus family arboviruses, so called because they are arthropod-borne. The virion is or so 40 nm in size. WNV is a +ssRNA virus. It is also an enveloped, icosahedral virus. Incubation period is about 3-14 days.TransmissionWNV is transmitted by the female mosquito of the Culex species and can be transmitted to many vertebrates including birds, horses, dogs, cats, and humans. WNV has not been found to be transmitted through personal contact or between any of the secondary carriers (i.e. birds to humans, etc.). It can be spread through blood transfusion, but this has only happened twice in the US.Symptoms just about people who are infected with West Nile virus either have no symptoms or experience mild illness such as fever, headache and body aches before fully recovering. Some persons may also develop a mild rash or swollen lymph glands. In some individuals, curiously the elderly, West Nile virus can cause serious disease that affects brain and spinal tissue. Severe illness may include encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. Symptoms may include headache, high fever, stiff neck, confusion, coma, tremors, convulsions, and muscle weakness or paralysis. At its most serious, West Nile virus cancause permanent neurological damage or death. The compulsion rate is 10-15% of t he only 1% that develop the more severe condition.DiagnosisDiagnostic testing is usually only d one on patients that acquire the more severe meningitis or encephalitis. A MAC-ELISA test is performed on the CSF to detect any virus specific IgM. A MAC-ELISA can also be done on serum samples to confirm viremia. Like many other new viral diseases, this test is done when all other infections, bacterial or otherwise, are ruled out as the causitive agent. Diagnosis is based highly on clinical suspicion.
Monday, May 27, 2019
correlation coefficiental statisticsal Research There argon umpteen types of correlational look for. The commonality among only types of correlational investigate is that they explore familys amongst multivariates. Where descriptive research only described what was going on, correlational research talks about the link among different things. It is of import to understand that correlational research does NOT tell us that Vari suitable A caused Variable B, but rather that they are in some manner related.For example, if I told you that there was a correlation between domestic violence (violence between family members) and bowling, you would look at me strangely. But there is a relationship between the variable quantitys (variable 1- domestic violence, and variable 2- bowling). As more sight bowl in the US, more domestic violence occurs. pic pic Does that mean that bowling causes domestic violence- like you had wondering(a) game and arrest it out on a loved one? Or dome stic violence causes bowling- like you fight with a sibling and note the need to deal out it out on some pins?As you start out already guessed- one does not cause the other to occur, but they are related- for any cartridge holder state bowl, I can predict that domestic violence give go up, and every time domestic violence goes down I should be able to find a lane at the local bowling tout ensembleey. There is a hidden variable that links both of them to tickher. In this gaucherie it is overwinter time. In the winter more hatful bowl and more people stay in their homes (which increases the chances of domestic violence). Direction of a Correlation pic picBefore we learn the different types of correlational research methods, understand that correlations can go in two directions positive and negative. Positive Correlation when two variables go in the equivalent direction. For example, domestic violence and bowling. When bowling goes up, so does domestic violence. When dome stic violence decreases, so does bowling. pic Negative Correlation here the two variables go in diametrical directions. For example, consumption of garlic and dating (now I am making this one up). The slight garlic you eat, the more you date. The more garlic you eat, the little the date.One variable going in one direction can be used to predict the other variable going in the diametrical direction. pic Correlational Coefficient Scientists whole step the strength of a correlation by using a number called a correlational coefficient. Now you do not prepare to deal how they get the number, but you should know what it means when you see it. The number range from -1 to +1. If two variables (like studying and grades) take a crap a correlation above adjust (like +. 76) then you permit a positive correlation and the more you study, the better grades you have. If the number is below zero (like -. 2) then you have a negative correlation and when one variable goes up the other goes down (like garlic and dating). If two variables have a correlation of zero then they have NO relationship with each other. The adjacent the numbers go to either +1 or -1, the stronger the correlation. The strength has nothing to do with whether the number is positive of negative. A correlation of -. 88 is stronger than one that is +. 56. The proximate the number gets to zero (whether positive or negative), the weaker the correlation. Are you a little confused? Try this Types of Correlational StudiesThere are many different slipway to base a correlation between two variables. Lets discuss some of the more popular ways the mass method and realistic observation. The Survey order pic Perhaps the most common type of research near is survey research. Every time you receive a letter in the mail conveying you to take a minute and answer a few psyches, or get a phone call begging for x minutes of your time to speak about how you feel about , you are experiencing the survey method of research. All surveys have one thing in common, they ask questions.Now there are good and bad things about surveys in research. The good- no matter how you do it, internet, mail, phone, in person- they are fairly cheap. You can wrap large macrocosms of people easily if you use the phone or internet. The bad aspects of surveys are that first, the response rate is REALLY low (for every 100 mail you send out, you will be lucky to get one back). Second, people can lie on the survey so you can always question the validity of your data. Lets erupt down the survey method as a tool of correlational study. Pretend our hypothesis was the more garlic people eat, the less they date.First, we have to keep abreast up with some survey questions (pretend they ask about the amount of garlic one has eaten in the past 6 months and how much they have dated in the past sixth months). Hopefully, when people answer the survey, we will see that people who have stated that they have eaten a lot of garlic have in any case answered that they have dated less (a negative correlation). But who are we going to give the survey to? As with ALL types of studies (except some case studies) we must tell apart a audition of people to take the survey (a attempt is just a group of subjects).We have to first identify a population of people from which we are going to get the sample. The population includes anyone who can possibly be chosen to be part of the sample. If we are studying anorectic wo custody and their dating habits we would recognize a sample from a population of anorexic women. In the case of garlic and dating, I am going to limit my population to single men and women between the ages of 18-25 from the Suwanee demesne (if I do not limit my population, then I would have to start contacting people from all around the world).Now, how do I pick people to be a part of my sample? Do I call all my single friends in the Suwanee area and give them the survey? That would not be a ve ry fair way of doing it. To make the survey valid I MUST randomly pack a sample from the population. Random selection means that every person in my population has an equal chance of being selected for the survey. If I can do this, then my sample has a greatly likelihood of actually representing the larger population I am studying.How do I randomly sample my population- I can randomly pick names out of a phonebook (but in a way that is unfair to single people in Suwanee who do not have phones)- in other words, finding a truly random sample is not easy. Naturalistic Observation Another correlational research method is called representational observation (although you can also use it as a descriptive research tool as well). Naturalistic observation is when a researcher attempts to advert their subjects in their natural habitats without interacting with them at all. Pretend I had a hypothesis children who experience violence in the home or angry people.If I treasured to use natura listic observation I would find groups of kids and watch them in their home life and compare that to their social life. I would notice them around all over they go. I would never interact with them- but just watch. If I see that every time a child experiences violence at home they are violent, I could claim that violence in the home and violent societal behavior are related, but I would NEVER know if the violence at home is causing the violence in society (it could be one of a million other things). Once again, at most, these types of studies show correlation. The pinnacle of all science is if it proves causation.Correlational ResearchCorrelational Research There are many types of correlational research. The commonality among all types of correlational research is that they explore relationships between variables. Where descriptive research only described what was going on, correlational research talks about the link between different things. It is important to understand that cor relational research does NOT tell us that Variable A caused Variable B, but rather that they are somehow related.For example, if I told you that there was a correlation between domestic violence (violence between family members) and bowling, you would look at me strangely. But there is a relationship between the variables (variable 1- domestic violence, and variable 2- bowling). As more people bowl in the US, more domestic violence occurs. pic pic Does that mean that bowling causes domestic violence- like you had bad game and take it out on a loved one? Or domestic violence causes bowling- like you fight with a sibling and feel the need to take it out on some pins?As you have already guessed- one does not cause the other to occur, but they are related- for every time people bowl, I can predict that domestic violence will go up, and every time domestic violence goes down I should be able to find a lane at the local bowling alley. There is a hidden variable that links both of them tog ether. In this case it is winter time. In the winter more people bowl and more people stay in their homes (which increases the chances of domestic violence). Direction of a Correlation pic picBefore we examine the different types of correlational research methods, understand that correlations can go in two directions positive and negative. Positive Correlation when two variables go in the SAME direction. For example, domestic violence and bowling. When bowling goes up, so does domestic violence. When domestic violence decreases, so does bowling. pic Negative Correlation here the two variables go in DIFFERENT directions. For example, consumption of garlic and dating (now I am making this one up). The less garlic you eat, the more you date. The more garlic you eat, the less the date.One variable going in one direction can be used to predict the other variable going in the opposite direction. pic Correlational Coefficient Scientists measure the strength of a correlation by using a nu mber called a correlational coefficient. Now you do not have to know how they get the number, but you should know what it means when you see it. The number range from -1 to +1. If two variables (like studying and grades) have a correlation above zero (like +. 76) then you have a positive correlation and the more you study, the better grades you have. If the number is below zero (like -. 2) then you have a negative correlation and when one variable goes up the other goes down (like garlic and dating). If two variables have a correlation of zero then they have NO relationship with each other. The closer the numbers go to either +1 or -1, the stronger the correlation. The strength has nothing to do with whether the number is positive of negative. A correlation of -. 88 is stronger than one that is +. 56. The closer the number gets to zero (whether positive or negative), the weaker the correlation. Are you a little confused? Try this Types of Correlational StudiesThere are many differen t ways to show a correlation between two variables. Lets discuss some of the more popular ways the survey method and naturalistic observation. The Survey Method pic Perhaps the most common type of research around is survey research. Every time you receive a letter in the mail postulation you to take a minute and answer a few questions, or get a phone call begging for ten minutes of your time to speak about how you feel about , you are experiencing the survey method of research. All surveys have one thing in common, they ask questions.Now there are good and bad things about surveys in research. The good- no matter how you do it, internet, mail, phone, in person- they are fairly cheap. You can cover large populations of people easily if you use the phone or internet. The bad aspects of surveys are that first, the response rate is REALLY low (for every 100 mailing you send out, you will be lucky to get one back). Second, people can lie on the survey so you can always question the val idity of your data. Lets break down the survey method as a tool of correlational study. Pretend our hypothesis was the more garlic people eat, the less they date.First, we have to come up with some survey questions (pretend they ask about the amount of garlic one has eaten in the past 6 months and how much they have dated in the past sixth months). Hopefully, when people answer the survey, we will see that people who have stated that they have eaten a lot of garlic have also answered that they have dated less (a negative correlation). But who are we going to give the survey to? As with ALL types of studies (except some case studies) we must choose a sample of people to take the survey (a sample is just a group of subjects).We have to first identify a population of people from which we are going to get the sample. The population includes anyone who can possibly be chosen to be part of the sample. If we are studying anorexic women and their dating habits we would choose a sample from a population of anorexic women. In the case of garlic and dating, I am going to limit my population to single men and women between the ages of 18-25 from the Suwanee area (if I do not limit my population, then I would have to start contacting people from all around the world).Now, how do I pick people to be a part of my sample? Do I call all my single friends in the Suwanee area and give them the survey? That would not be a very fair way of doing it. To make the survey valid I MUST randomly select a sample from the population. Random selection means that every person in my population has an equal chance of being selected for the survey. If I can do this, then my sample has a greatly likelihood of actually representing the larger population I am studying.How do I randomly sample my population- I can randomly pick names out of a phonebook (but in a way that is unfair to single people in Suwanee who do not have phones)- in other words, finding a truly random sample is not easy. Natura listic Observation Another correlational research method is called naturalistic observation (although you can also use it as a descriptive research tool as well). Naturalistic observation is when a researcher attempts to observe their subjects in their natural habitats without interacting with them at all. Pretend I had a hypothesis children who experience violence in the home or violent people.If I wanted to use naturalistic observation I would find groups of kids and watch them in their home life and compare that to their social life. I would follow them around everywhere they go. I would never interact with them- but just watch. If I see that every time a child experiences violence at home they are violent, I could claim that violence in the home and violent societal behavior are related, but I would NEVER know if the violence at home is causing the violence in society (it could be one of a million other things). Once again, at most, these types of studies show correlation. The p innacle of all science is if it proves causation.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Collaboration Assessment Guide Please complete this four part guide and submit for the Collaboration Lesson. role One Collaboration lesson/task description Describe the lesson or task you completed collaboratively in a paragraph consisting of five or more sentences. array Two Peer and Self Evaluation Rate each member of the team up, including yourself, according to each of the performance criteria below. 3 = above come 2 = average 1 = below averageStudent NamesCooperationListened to and respected others and their opinionsContributionContributed their fair share to the completion of the task or project fulfilling their assigned dutiesParticipationConsistently spoke up, attended all meetings, in full participated, stayed on task, and offered relevant informationResponsibilityCompleted all necessary work adequately and on time without needing remindersFeedbackOffered appropriate and adequate feedback when necessary Part Three Self-Reflection suffice to the following in two t o three sentences each. What did you enjoy most about working with others on this lesson/task? Explain. How did your team deal with conflict? Explain. Do you sense others were happy with your participation in the lesson/task? Explain. What will you do differently, if anything, in your next online coaction opportunity? Explain. Additional comments Part Four EvidenceProvide secernate of collaboration in the space below or in a separate document. Examples of evidence include, but are not limited to, the following Link to the team wiki, blog, Voicethread, or other web 2. 0 tool Copy and paste below, attach, or provide a screen shot of the sermon thread from the blog, wiki, discussion area, instant message, email, etc. Copy and paste or attach team project plan and final project Any other specific evidence as listed with the collaboration lesson or task you completed
Saturday, May 25, 2019
The population of the world today is increasing greatly each(prenominal) day. For years now, Chinas population has been oer superstarness billion and just recently a family in India gave birth to the one-billionth child. The estimated birth per day in India is an oerpowering 42,000 births. At this rate, there will non be enough land for inhabitants to live and survive in. Over-population ca works m all difficulties, for example China faces many hassles such as crowded living arrangements. Some families do non even have enough income to feed their children a proper meal.The amount of batch not solo affects the families but too the country itself. For instance, for the amount of people, there may not be enough jobs. Proper health care may not be tenderd, because there are just too many people, which may cause a striation of health enigmas. A childs didactics is too at find because there will be too many students in one classroom for one reader to teach. Also, some coun tries may experience a shortfall in food because there may be such a great demand for it that the country itself may not be able to provide the food in the amounts that are involve.Over population also causes less serious problems, things such as crowed sidewalks and streets. Too many cars on the road would also cause the problem of pollution. These everyday hassles would cause a person much frustration and undue stress, which could be avoided if the population was not too great. Suggestions have been make to decrease this problem, theories have been studied and yet implementation of these objectives have not been properly sought through.Although, there are devil very good suggestions for this problem which include, the government passing a impartiality that only allows a family to have twain children and no more, a law such as this one has already been introduced in China. This may not seem fair but in countries such as these, it is necessary, to avoid such problems. The other is as simple as finish teaching method. This solution may seem worthless, but would slowly show results. If solutions such as these were used in countries for instance, like China and India, from the beginning, then the problem of population would not even be an issue today.As stated above, the government intervening on this problem and allowing a family only a definite amount of children is an excellent solution. Having a limit on how many children a family is allowed to have is a great way to ascendency the problem in the hopes of diminish the problem of over population. In order to make certain that families do not go over the limit, the government should do yearly checks on the families. This would inhabit of a member of the government looking in the family files and seeing how many people are situated in a family.If a family reachs the limit of two children, then the parents should be responsible in paying a fine or paying more taxes yearly. If the family exceeds the li mit of two children, but the child is not born yet or is a new born the parents should have the choice of giving up the child to a couple that is unable to ask pregnant with the certainty that the child will know who his or her biological parents are and be allowed to have contact with them if they wish to do so.If the parents do not agree with the first option then, the other choice they have is to pay more taxes each year. This way, only the families that can afford more then two children will be able to have bigger families. Having this law implemented not only decreases the problem of over population, but gives the children a better superior of life. Parents will take on more responsibility knowing what they will face such as an increase in their taxes or get fines if they exceed the limit of children the government has allowed them.It may not seem fair that the government be allowed to have this kind of control, but in such extreme cases it is needed so that the problem does not get too far out of hand. The world already has two countries that have a population of over one billion and there are probably other countries that are over populated when compared to the amount of land that they have, that is why it is necessary to have a law such as this one being practiced by such countries who need it to avoid all the other problems that can occur.This next suggestion of sex education may sound like such a simple solution, because in North America it is taught to every student, but other countries may not teach it like its taught here and this may be a contributing factor to why population is becoming a bigger problem. Sex education is very important not only for the individuals protection against disease, but so that the person is aware of all the options that are available for birth control. If people were taught that it is fine to use birth control then maybe use of it would be practiced.There are so many different methods of birth control that one shoul d not feel as though one specific technique makes him or her uncomfortable and therefore he or she will not use it. Sex is such a private subject that causes many people to feel uncomfortable discussing it, but if schools were to start teaching it along with teaching students abstinence at an early age, then, when the time comes for the individual to take some responsibility, he or she will not be embarrassed to do so.Doctors should also teach their patients the different types of birth control that are available for them to use and also make it easily accessible for the patients to get them, that way there is nothing belongings an individual back from using them. Another way of informing people of birth control other than through schools and doctors is to have advertising, through television and radio, magazines, and hoarding signs.That way people are facing the issue everyday and may realize that the use of birth control is not such a seriously idea. People will grow to be mor e comfortable with the issue of sex and birth control and just maybe then the problem of over population will decrease and families will consists of less children which will also decrease the poverty level of that many families face. Even though a lot of people may not agree with the action that is taking place in order to correct over population, it must be done.Children are not living the quality of life that they should be living, they are not getting the proper meals and are therefore not as healthy and are malnourished, and their education is at risk because classrooms are getting crowed with too many children. The streets are too busy and cramped cars on the road are causing more pollution. Controlling the population would decrease the amount of families that live in poverty because families that are able to afford more children would only have big families eon the other families would have just two children and they would not be struggling to give their kids the proper quali ty of life.Although it seems as though the solution to the problem of over population is simple and that by the government passing laws or having the proper education for these people is just going to make the problem disappear, it will not. The attend will be very long and results will not be seen so soon, this may cause a lot of anger in people because their lives are being changed so drastically and in some cases they may feel as though they are being asked to change their morals and also because no formal results will be seen so soon.Over population is just one problem, but in fact has a snowball prepare and causes many more problems that have been stated above. If people were able to realize these problems and be willing to help out by taking birth control and not contribute to the problem that the world is facing today, then maybe one day over population would not be an problem any more and would just seem like issue that was dealt with.
Friday, May 24, 2019
The reason why student complain of boredom and lack of variety in the schoolroom is, because of the lack of engagement, inability to make choices, and the lack of voice in the schoolroom. The biggest reason most students does not engage in classroom activity is because of the criticism they observe from their teachers when they try to express their feels about something. Most teachers tend to focus more(prenominal) on quantity kinda of quality, they focus more on how its organism said instead of whats been said. An evidence that supports this can be seen in the book Rethinking School- Teaching Standard English in our School by Linda Christensen pg 130.When more attention is paid to the elbow room something is written or said than to what is said, students address and thoughts become devalued. Student learn to be silent, to give as few words as possible for the teacher criticism. Meaning, collect to the criticism of teacher students tend to talk less to avoid been judged. In this this evidence one can clear see that the criticism of teachers has a very big impact on us students in such a way that it makes us feel akin what we have said is wrong, or bad, or stupid due to this feels we tend to be less engaging in the class activity to avoid been judged.This fuss can be avoided if teachers know when to correct, and how to correct a student mistake. When correcting a student dont make them feel stupid or boring for saying what they said but instead, let them know that you understand what they trying to say, and if you want to correct them, say something like, Here is another way to say what you however said, or you could say something like instead of using that vocab you could say this instead.By doing this, you are fashioning the student feel more comfortable in fashioning mistakes and also creating an atmosphere of growth in the classroom. Another reason students complain of boredom is due to the inability to make choices. Students are been told w hat to do and how to do it instead of exclusivelyowing us to explore our interests. When we explore our interests, we are given an opportunity to bring in a unique set of perception and abilities that can be urbane to expand our understanding. Different students have different ways of learning.For example, if we are giving a project in class to write an essay about a particular topic, some students will feel stiff about writing an essay because they love writing essays, while other students wouldnt feel strong because writing an essay isnt their strong area. Instead of writing an essay they probably want to give a presentation, write a poem, or do other things and still answer the question which is the project. However, we are not been giving the privilege to do so because we are been told what to do and how how we are expected to do it.This method isnt healthy for our education because those teachers are eliminating our ability to make choices which puts a limitation to our cre ativity or in some cases kill our creativity because we are being told indirectly our uniqueness isnt important. This problem can be stopped/avoided by letting us do what we are more comfortable with, and by letting us explore different ways of ways of answering questions instead of enforcing us to answer the question the same way as everyone else,because we cant grow from doing the same thing all the time.Lastly, another reason why students complain of boredom in PSA is due to the lack of voice in the classroom. The biggest reason students feel silenced is because, most classrooms tend to be more teacher-centered instead of student-centered. Most teachers love to do all the talking in the classroom which is unhealthy for the education of the students because it stifles the capacity of students to be active learners. Another reason why students lack voice in the classroom is due to some teachers inability to welcome/deal with controversies.Some teachers tend to avoid controversial sheers such as racism, sexism, abuse, because they are not comfortable in overlap their own opinions on these issues with students. The inability of those teachers welcoming controversial topic and saying their opinion doesnt only affect the student, but it also affects the teacher in such a way that they wouldnt have the confidence in critiquing their own curriculum and method.Students voice can be regained by making them feel comfortable in sharing their ideas,and also creating an atmosphere of freedom by letting conflict and discussion unfold in classrooms. By doing this, students wouldnt only learn to find their voice, they will also learn to be tolerance of others opinion and beliefs. Student boredom is a very big issue not only in Highschool, but also in college because at one point in time every students would have experienced each the lack of engagement, inability to make choices, or the lack of voice in the classroom.These problems can all be avoided by the simply creatin g an atmosphere of freedom in the classroom, meaning making students comfortable in making mistakes, nurturing our creativity by making us explore our interests, and making us comfortable in sharing our own opinion about controversial issues. By doing this, it will increase students maturity by making them tolerance of others beliefs and opinion, and it also makes us deeper inquirers because our ability to oppose to controversial issues will make us voracious.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Sedentary lifestyles promote obesity, so it is important to limit hours spent sitting idly in front of the television or computer. When a chela is allowed to travel by more time in front of the television or playing computer games they atomic number 18 more promising to stay there than necessitate in personal activities like playing and running. It is also of none that the squirt who spends time in front of the television or the computer is more likely to consume junk food while watching television and playing computer games, especially if the adult permits such.Set aside specific times to spend outdoors It is also of none that it might be wise to actually plan times to spend outdoors, one weekend or a sidereal day to spend outside in the park. Family activities to be spend outside of the house like the park or backyard playing backyard basketball or football or simple activities like playing tag or swimming stick out be utilized in order to promote outdoor activity. Do not allow television inside the childrens room Research indicates that about 77% of children have television sets in their rooms (Kaiser Family Foundation report, 1999).This promotes laziness in the child, lying in bed while watching television that may also include munching on junk foods and chocolate. Adapt an active lifestyle retain the stairs instead of the elevator. Or if the school is near, walking to school might also be a good idea. It might be of note that parents who are more active enables their children to be more active as well. Forget the no pain, no gain theory Children should be taught to enjoy personal activities not an activity to be afraid of.It is a lifelong theory but one must surmise that a child may not be susceptible to such and they might not be adaptable to any activity that might require them to feel pain so this theory should be junked and that physical activity should be considered as fun and enjoyable to the child rather than hard labor, so it is imperat ive that physical activity interventions should be aimed at being enjoyable and fun for a child lest risk the child not doing the activity at all.Plan for a variety of Activities This is so to keep off monotony and boredom, especially in children who are more often than not easily distracted and easily bored by repetitive activities. It is important that the child not become bored with the activity so it is imperative that a child has a variety of activities that get out attend avoid monotony and table service increase interest. One may note that a child, even an adult can become easily bored when they are subjected to repetitive activities.Enhancing the intervention political platform to be varied and fun will help the child stay into the program rather than feel that it is a boring tasked to be endured and not to be enjoyed. One may realize that in order for any program to derive successful outcomes, it is recommended that family members participate in programs patterned for the obese child, it can be noted that parents and sibling that serve as role models for these children often feel loved and therefore can provide better success of the programs (CDC 1997).Riding bicycles, outdoorsy walks or swimming activities can be fun activities that also make children feel good and may not be construed as a business they need to do to lose weight it can just be construed as a family activity when parents and siblings are involved, rather than a taxing responsibleness they must endure in order to please the parent and become more healthy. The Centers for Disease Control recommends schools set up policies that encourage enjoyable, lifelong physical activity among young adults.(CDC, 1997). Their guidelines state, Physical education should emphasize skills for lifetime physical activities (e. g. , dance, strength training, and jogging. Swimming, bicycling, cross-country skiing, walking, and hiking) rather than those for competitive sports. (CDC, 1997) These expe rts also advocate that activities to enhance seaworthiness and adaptation of a more healthy behavior become an important aspect of the familys lifestyle.Developing an After school Wellness Program As the childs school tends to be the second home of most children, with them spending half of their lifetimes in school and good deal of their days there, it can be considered as a good avenue to start a wellness program for children, not necessarily the obese ones, in order to help prevent and cure the worsening case of obesity in children.This increasing occurrence of obesity in children may be attributed in part to change magnitude sedentary behavior, such as watching television, which leads to less energy expended in physical activity. It has been theorized that by middle school, many children lack the physical skills or agency to participate in competitive physical activities and involvement in various activities in school It is believed that an increased physical activity relative to the customary physical activities at home.The aim of the afterschool program should be, information dissemination and education, activities that enhance physical movements like dance exercises and sports activities, and other outdoor activities like games that promote physical activities, gardening and adventure education plus development of good eating habits by healthy cook outs and development of new healthy recipes by the children themselves, this can and will encourage childrens eating habits.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Today, no 1 needs to be convinced that cartel on IAs can be vitala The lift in stature of inner(a) he arrs at that placefore comes at the right clip Auditing resources atomic number 18 so scarce and dearly-won, and much is demanded of all he atomic number 18rs. Ward et Al2.1 IntroductionThe aim of this chapter is to research current international idea and patterns on the capable country by placing and reexamining applicable local and foreign literature. This will lay the footing for set uping a theoretical apprehension on the function of authorities examineing, both external and internal scrutiniseing, with peculiar accent on get it ons refering the consanguinity between them.2.2 AUDITING IN THE man SECTOR In virtually all legal powers, the populace celestial sphere plays a major function in society, and strong administration in the man sector can promote the efficient usage of resources, strengthen answerability for the stewardship of those resources, better directi on and service bringing and thereby lend to bettering people s lives. ( IFAC, 2001, par.004 )Government inspecting is a basis of costly existence sector administration ( IIA, 2006a ) . He arrs play a important function by helping authorities entities achieve, amongst different of import aims, answerability and unity by supplying indifferent sentiments on the usage of public resources. 1 The populace sector represents a principal-agent kin as shown in figure come out of the closet 2.2 below, with the functionaries moving as the principal s agents that must upset history to their principal of the extent to which the populace s aims have been achieved. An effectual audit activity is deemed of import in order to cut down the hazards inherited in much(prenominal) a relationship.Given that public sector entities are complex and diverse, no individual administration theoretical account can function all of such entities ( IIA, 2006a ) . Thus, based on the demands and fortunes, m both nameions rely on a combination of audit activities including both external and internal auditing.2.2.1 External AuditingThe range of external audit in the public sector should travel beyond giving an adept sentiment on the truth and equity of the fiscal domainments to integrate appraisals on facets of corporate administration and the usage of resources, normally referred to as rank for money ( Bourn, et. Al, 2002 ) . Furthermore, INTOSAI GOV 9150 asserted that compared to the IA, the Supreme Audit Institution ( SAI ) has the extra undertaking of analyzing the effectualness of the IA. Furthermore, in reassigning out their endure EAs are non to be hindered during the public insertion of the audit but ashall have the right of entree at all times to the company s accounting recordsa ( Companies Act, 1995 ) . In this respect NAO ( 2009 ) stipulate that the Auditor General s work is facilitated by statute law which stipulates that any circumstance inhibiting such entree to information is to be reported to Parliament. It is efficacious to separate between the cardinal elements of public sector audits. NAO ( 2009 ) sort its audits under the undermentioned classs 2 fiscal and conformity audits public presentation audits particular audits and probes IT audits.2.2.2 inner(a) AuditingINTOSAI GOV 9140 highlighted that the function of internal auditing has evolved from an administrative process with a focal point on conformity to an indispensable constituent of administration in the populace sector. thence internal audit activities are seen as supplying confidence on the effectivity of public sector entities internal control environment by placing chances for public presentation betterment.Asare ( 2008 ) identified three chief elements, any(prenominal)times referred to as the three pillars to explicate the function of internal auditing in the populace sector. As shown in Figure 2.3 below, these include the rating and betterment of hazard directio n, control and administration procedures. This suggests that internal audit has continued to travel off from fiscal and conformity audits to a broader value-adding function, encompassing both consultancy and confidence activities, thereby moving as the executive arm of authorities.A brief description on each of these three pillars is summarised in evade 2.1 below2.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDITING STANDARDS AND INDEPENDENCE OF BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL AUDITORSDiplock ( 2005 ) argued that the challenge for the audit profession is to regularly reassess whether criterions are being followed and to show its independency. over the old ages, INTOSAI members agreed that robust and dependable auditing criterions were required, underscoring that public sector scrutinizing must be stick outned by international criterions as good. As a consequence of just cooperation between public and private sector scrutinizing at that place has been the uprisement of International Standards of Supreme A udit Institutions ( ISSAIs ) 3 .With regard to the Maltese scenario, the NAO uses the ISSAIs as guidelines of patterns that are followed when carry oning its fiscal and conformity audits. The Office besides uses International Standards on Auditing ( ISA ) of the IFAC when transporting out the audit of fiscal statements of certain public sector entities ( NAO, 2009 ) . The methodological digest apply by the IAID is based on International Standards for the Professional Practice of interior(a) Auditing that ( include Diagram ) is issued by the IIA ( IAID, 2010d ) .The independency of hearers, both EAs and IAs, is critical in guaranting that public organic structures are accountable for their public presentation in footings of both stewardship of public money and the bringing of high quality services ( Bourn, et. Al, 2002 ) . so Bourn, et. Al ( 2002 ) advocate that such independency ensures that they can speak as they find and without fright or favor in an nonsubjective manner. This has become progressively of import following the recent fiscal dirts that have brought with them the loss in credibleness in the auditing profession. Furthermore, INTOSAI GOV 9150 stated that, IA s independency is cardinal to SAIs in the issue of utilizing IA s work a to be able to organize and collaborate with an IA. 2.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL AUDITORS If internal audit is judged to be effectual, attempts shall be made a to accomplish the most appropriate division or assignment of undertakings and cooperation between the SAI and Internal Audit. ( Lima Declaration, ISSAI 1, subdivision 3, par.3 )Coordination and cooperation between SAIs and IAs is enhanced as both parties can harvest benefits in their uninterrupted thrust to accomplish force and effectivity in public services. For this ground, such a relationship should be seen as an chance to beef up public sector auditing.The IIA and INTOSAI recognise the magnificence of such a relationship by being n atural spouses . They great deal a common linguistic communication such as criterions understand several functions, duties and outlooks ( Moser, 2008 ) .2.4.1 Opportunities for Cooperation in PracticeAlthough comparatively small research has examined the countries of coordination and cooperation between I & A EAs in the populace sector, the following five facets of cardinal scrutinizing pattern characteristic most conspicuously in the literatureAudit planning Internal Controls deceit and Irregularities Coverage Consultancy.Audited account Planning INTOSAI GOV 9150 identified five chief configurations during an audit procedure where SAIs may utilize the work of IAs amongst which there is the planning phase. 4 This phase is deemed to be an of import portion of the procedure for pull offing an audit map where the EA should execute a preliminary appraisal of the internal audit map. much(prenominal) an appraisal will act upon the nature, timing and extent of external audit proces ss, depending on the SAIs judgement of the relevance of the internal audit.Audit Commission ( 2010 ) sets out the importance for the EA to place what work it will be seeking to put corporate trust upon during the planning phase as this, ensures that the proposed work meets the timetable and demands to enable external audit to put trust upon it. Spencer Pickett ( 2010 ) explained that there are several degrees to which audit planning may be interfaced as shown in Figure 2.4.As can be seen in the below figure, at the extreme, it can ensue in one planning papers being prepared which, harmonizing to Spencer Pickett ( 2010 ) , is more relevant in the populace sector given that EAs tend to presume a function in procuring value for money.Figure 2.4 Interfaced Audit PlanningInternal Controls Following the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, internal control duties for both I & A EAs increased. Harmonizing to Engle and Joseph ( 2008 ) , this represents an country where enormous va lue can be achieved through proper coordination. The primary intent of internal audit is to measure and better the effectivity of the system of internal control. 5 On the another(prenominal) manus EAs are required to obtain an apprehension of the control environment prior to the readying of the fiscal statements in order to be after the audit and develop an effectual audit attack.In her survey, Colbert ( 1993 ) concluded that the IAs work can help the EA in understanding the determination of the control construction by, for case, supplying system and papers flow charts of the accounting system and finding if the set system has been really put in topographic point.Fraud and Irregularities This has been identified by HM exchequer and NAO ( 2000 ) as another possible country where information can be exchanged, given that both hearers are interested in the bar and sensing of fraud. Internal audit work in relation to fraud can be relevant to EAs when measuring the hazards of lunge mi sstatements found in the fiscal statements.Since IAs have greater cognition about the entity s operations than EAs, fraud hazard appraisal warrant important trust on internal audit work. Such a statement is supported by surveies done by KPMG, which indicate that IAs are more likely to honor fraud than EAs ( KPMG, 2009 ) . This is illustrated in Figure 2.5 where 47 % of frauds were discovered by internal audit, legal or conformity forces compared to the 9 % of frauds detected by EAs.Coverage unitary of the basic types of cooperation between hearers includes the exchange of audit certification. Audit Commission ( 2010 ) recognises that sharing of audit studies and other audit information will heighten understanding and long suit .Moeller ( 2005 ) argued that internal audit studies should be circulated to EAs as they constitute an of import agencies of maintaining the EA informed of the internal audit findings and other activities. In set abouting the work necessary to underpin an sentiment on the audited entity s fiscal statements, the EA may seek to trust on the work of the IA.Audit Commission ( 2010 ) indicated that the IAs can supply the EAs withAn audit plan Entree to scrutinize studies and associated working paper files Detailss of any important alterations to the audit program.Spencer Pickett ( 2010 ) further highlighted that the internal audit activity s concluding communications, direction s responses to such communications, together with any subsequent follow-up reappraisals can help EAs in finding and seting the range and timing of their work.Some EAs, on the other manus, may hold concerns about turning over their work documents to IAs due to their professional duties refering confidentiality and independency as highlighted by Moeller ( 2005 ) . Nonetheless their work can be used as input to IAs in be aftering the countries to underscore in future internal audit work Spencer Pickett ( 2010 ) .Consultancy HM Treasury and NAO ( 2000 ) indicated t hat audience is cardinal to construct an effectual cooperation channel. The same position is shared by Spencer Pickett ( 2010 ) who affirmed that regular audience is indispensable in order to utilize similar techniques, methods and nomenclature to transport out the work. The two parties may confer with with each other even when they are non working together in a peculiar country such as confer withing on specific audit findings.Committedness, communicating and assurance were identified as three indispensable constituents that need to be present to take in charge effectual audience, as indicated in Table 2.2 below.INTOSAI GOV 9150 acknowledges that coordination and cooperation can be done either officially, where there will be formal understandings or protocols or in an informal manner based on good will such as in the instance of audiences.Other possible countries of coordination and cooperation between SAIs and IAs were identified by HM Treasury and NAO ( 2000 ) and a brief drum head is provided belowConformity with Laws and RegulationsSince IAs continuously assess the controls over conformity with Torahs and ordinances that are internal to the Government such as Parliamentary blessing for outgo, SAIs can put trust on their work. This is of import given that most SAIs mission statement underscore the significance of the rumination of properness 6 and hence internal audit activity is utile to find whether activities and concern have been conducted in conformity with Parliament s outlooks ( HM Treasury and NAO, 2000 ) .Audited account of spread administrationsAlthough non peculiarly applicable to Malta, this has been recognised as another country of cooperation when the audited entity is dispersed geographically. HM Treasury and NAO ( 2000 ) argued that when the two parties are allowed to work in joint squads or one of them undertakes work on behalf of the other, more economical usage of audit resources is made.Reliance on the Internal Audit s WorkISSAI 2 00 pointed out that, When the SAI uses the work of another hearer ( s ) , it must use equal processs to supply confidence that the other hearer ( s ) has exercised due attention and complied with relevant auditing criterions, and may reexamine the work of the other hearer ( s ) to fulfill itself as to the quality of that work. ( Section 2, par.2.45 )Reliance by EAs on internal audit s work is governed by ISSAI 1610 that farther highlighted two chief points that SAIs must see after set uping that the internal audit map is relevant to the audit. These include 7 Whether and to what extent, to utilize the specific work of the IAs If so, whether such work is equal for the intents of the audit.Such standard requires EAs to reexamine IAs work, which normally involves remaking specific trials every bit good as executing a more general reappraisal.The Sharman 8 Report ( 2001 ) found that the relationship between cardinal authorities internal hearers and NAO has non been every bit salutary as might hold been expected , in portion because the focal point of internal audit has tended towards non-financial countries, doing its work of less value to those scrutinizing fiscal statements. triplet major standards were identified as a common component in the surveies that examined the relationship between I & A EAs. These elements influence the EAs trust on IAs as shown in Figure 2.6 below.2.4.2 Potential Risks of CooperationA figure of benefits were identified from the coordination and cooperation between SAIs and IAs including amongst others, more efficient and effectual audits based on a clearer apprehension of the several audit functions and demands ( HM Treasury and NAO,2000 ) .However, INTOSAI GOV 9150 highlighted some possible hazards that could have in their relationship and that should be managed consequently in order to accomplish the full scope of benefits. The expectant points includePossible struggles of involvement Any via media of independency and objecti veness, blockading the ability to transport out an audit with an indifferent sentiment Premature revelation of audit findings to an external party, possible taking to a breach of confidentiality No consideration of restraints or limitations placed on the other hearer when finding the extent of coordination and cooperation evolution wrong decisions when utilizing the work of IAs Possible difference of decisions or sentiments which could take to a possible hazard of credibleness of either party.To accomplish a healthy relationship both parties need to be efficient and effectual as otherwise a possible menace might be if inefficient operations are in topographic point, particularly if there is trust on each other s work.With mention to the Maltese scenario, the NAO conducted a survey on the Internal Audit Function within Government Ministries ( NAO Report, 2000 ) . 9 This survey dates back to 1999 and no farther survey has been carried out since so.It was observed that, although the map did take to some stray benefits, it fell abruptly of the needed degree of effectivity. This was largely due toIn satisfactory cardinal coordination Restrictions in the map s independency within Ministries privation of direction support Lacks in enlisting and preparation patterns Restrictions and deficiency of resources Other factors act uponing the effectivity of the map including the relationship between the NAO and IAs.2.5 challenges and barriers to effectual coordinationGolen ( 2008 ) highlighted that in any on the job relationship, one has to be wholly aware of the human dealingss constituent that can originate, and the internal and external audit relationship is no exclusion. In fact the first relevant survey sing the relationship between I & A EAs, realised by Mautz ( 1984 ) , as cited by Haron et Al ( 2004 ) , showed that from internal audit s point of position the relationship with external audit was merely ostensibly a good one.Since a working squad relationship is a cardinal constituent for an effectual and efficient independent audit, communicating jobs have a direct impact on the result of an audit. Indeed the undermentioned communicating barriers were recognised by Golen ( 2008 ) , given that, one time identified and addressed, communicating between I & A EAs would better.Distortion or Omission of InformationThis occurs when an component of dress influences the information exchanged negatively, as each party perceives his work as critically of import for the decision of an audit. Both parties may non lend in adequate item with regard to the information required from each other. Golen ( 2008 ) highlighted that such a barrier could be managed by supplying an environment that encourages unfastened lines of communicating in order to run into the aim of the audit.Lack of CredibilityThis is particularly of import from the point of view of the EA because if the latter perceives that the IAs deficiency credibleness, he will be unwilling to pu t trust on the IA s work. In fact, Golen ( 2008 ) argued that some IAs see their interactions with EAs as non one of their favorite parts of the occupation because of the EAs limited usage of their work. Such a state of affairs may ensue in tenseness and struggle. The relationship could be improved if IAs possess the cognition, accomplishments and other competences to show their value, in order for EAs to accept their work as dependable.Inclination non to listenHarmonizing to Golen ( 2008 ) , the first measure to heighten communicating is through effectual hearing as negative attitudes towards each other can be change to the relationship. He argued that both parties need to be open-minded by set uping a footing of seeking to derive proper information from each other without developing any premature opinions.Resistance to ChangeAnother common barrier highlighted is the EAs opposition to alter to new constructs and processs as these may be seen as a menace. When this happens IAs may develop a feeling of bitterness that could farther decline an already delicate relationship Golen ( 2008 ) . Both I & A EAs must be willing to give adequate clip to each other to turn out the benefits that could be gained by leting for alteration.2.6 DecisionIn visible radiation of the above, one can reason that although there are some possible hazards ensuing from cooperation, working together as a squad instead than two independent groups can merely better the efficiency and effectivity of the independent audit and finally taking to a better service to the populace. Yet, such cooperation can merely boom in an environment where there is common assurance, connoting that both I & A EAs should follow an active function in seeking chances to organize work, where possible, in the involvements of maximizing the benefit of their work and understating repeat of attempt.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Discuss the representation of accelerate in any one of the movies discussed on the class.Do The remedy Thing ( intertwine leeward, 1989 )Analyzing race in any modern-day movie, empennage be a repugn it its ain right, hardly none the less film has changed and how we refer cultural groups and, instantly more and more histrions from different civilizations are looking on our screens. InDo The right Thingrace is evident on the screen throughout the full movie as auricle lee(prenominal) introduces us to a mixture of multiculturalism from Black-Americans, Caucasic Americans, Italian-Americans, Asian-Americans, the movie itself engages its audiences and inquire us inquiries intimately racial struggle. The movie is set on the corner of a Bedford-Stuyvesant subdivision of Brooklyn, following the life of Mookie ( arm Lee ) an intelligent immature black male, who is torn between sides, and that racial actions can take to a climatical minutes within the movie.Do the Right Thingneer ties over to stereotypes, as its secret plan clearly and positively drives us through what mundane life and battles of a black-American in a racial environment. & A apos It pay shoots down to this black people were stripped of our individualities when we were brought here, and it & angstrom unit apos s been a pursuit since so to specify who we are & amp apos ( Spike Lee ) fundamentally racial individuality is of import to the twenty-first century black American as is American independency. These unneurotic create a much stronger significance to the portraiture of American societies in Hollywood movies.Do The Right Thingis so powerful, with a batch of intending to it about racial purposes, was a challenge in itself to make, but what Spike Lee did, would intend you would hold to hold some kind of background history to make with multicultural vicinities, associating to the undermentioned autobiography. Spike Lee & A apos s a black manager, who was brought up in Brooklyn s o he knew the Immigration and Naturalization Services and outs of the topographic point, being brought up in a black neck of the woods inspired him to make the movie, he wanted to demo and do people understand what it was like, conveying this multicultural vicinity to cinema. His options on race and socialism, are portrayed in the movie rather good and fluently, even to the bare oculus.What & A apos s so cagey about this movie is that Spike Lee doesn & A apos t travel in front and enervate any civilization, alternatively shows everyone for who they really are. Each image is be in their ain manner, for illustration some characters have their ain personalities which clearly represent their civilization, such(prenominal) as the Italian Americans who own a eating ingleside called Sal & A apos s pizza shop, the manner they dress and speak gives off a vibration, a typical Italian mobster back in the 1980 & A apos s. The usage of congressmans and how each cultural group negot iations, subjects them and makes it easier to understand who & amp apos s apart of who. We now come across to the other characters in the movie, each drives the narrative forward in their ain specific manner, and most if non all the chief characters have their ain alone portion in the movie which drives the narrative forward, come oning the movie and the tenseness constructing up around the country. Spike downwind represents race in about every histrion on screen apart from, The topical anesthetic DJ ( Samuel L. Jackson ) and smiley, the local DJ seems to be slackly narrating the narrative as it unfolds in forepart of him, during the racial tenseness scenes we see the local DJ attempt to quiet and loosen up the state of affairs about as though he is contending for peace within the vicinity. We now move onto smiley and what seems to be the full movie, smiley is invariably looking to be showing himself without the usage of words, he wants to develop an individuality within the vici nity, due to his mental disablements he faces some challenges. smiley represents that everyone is different, but still has a topographic point to remain in this universe, Some people should merely larn to run into people for who they are, have some shame as you neer know, they could be one of the nicest and intelligent people you will run into. that was impale Lee & A apos s purpose on behalf of the character smiley, he tries to demo us the audience and the world/media, that everyone can be equal, it & amp apos s merely takes attempt in socializing with the environing people. Lee shown this inDo The Right Thing basedaround racial tensenesss and force, which can be proved a challenge as smiley portrays in the movie, as he isn & A apos t aloud to voice his sentiments in a mode he would wish excessively.This movie clearly understands racial civilizations and tensenesss from all sides of the cultural groups.Do The Right Thingoffers us the spectator to inquire a figure of inquiri es about race and political relations which Spike Lee had created within the narrative is defined by a race, and clearly shows us who and what cultural group they are with. This is one of the grounds why Do the Right Thing is still such a powerful movie. The inquiries it raises, while still powerful, withal still eludes us to the narrative about them intending of the movie is. another inquiry which is overlooked is, is at that place a black aesthetic? Spike Lee uses the mise en scene to depict and truly demo what an ghettoised black vicinity, set in Brooklyn. he sets this by utilizing exact vesture and prompts of a typical Brooklyn street, from what he remembers from his yesteryear, he brought into this movie, making the right ambiance for the audience, Lee & A apos s movie besides tries to accomplish demanding/repeating political consciousness which is to state he doesn & amp apos t merely convey up political subjects but dares to take place.& A apos Fight the Power & A apo s was the first vocal to be played in the movie, Spike Lee had this playing in the beginning shootings, with a adult female dancing deeply and sharply to it, utilizing this technique spike Lee is boding what will be played through the movie, force, Frustration, music, all this is shown under one vocal & A apos Fight The Power & A apos , it gives off negative vibraphones about what the movie holds, and the vocal & A apos Fight The Power & A apos & A apos Well, possibly we should halt stressing the negative, possibly we should stress the positive. Why can & amp apos t we fight for power, instead than contend the power & A apos this can be supported by this quotation mark ( Burton B. Roberts, administrative evaluator of the State Supreme Court in the Bronx, New York Times & A apos Do The Right Thing & A apos Page 2 ) fundamentally sketching why we as group our contending amongst ourselves why non battle for what we think is right, and that everyone should be treated the same.Do The Right Thingfoliages us oppugning the facts based around ethnics groups, racial tensenesss and how we live together as a society. in Do the right Thing you it is impossible to pull specific decisions /about what was and wasn & A apos t the right thing to make. Spike Lee puts together a movie conflicting to political orientations from Malcolm X and martin Luther male monarch, clashing both facets of peace and force into one movie. this movie went into such item about a delicate topic demoing us the spectator different facets of the twenty-four hours in and outs of a immature black American. Spike Lee wanted to make such a enlightening movie about race, yet do it in a elusive manner. Spike Lee shown us what was right and incorrect, and how racial tenseness can construct up to make and even bigger narrative..Bibliography& A apos It comes down to this black people were stripped of our individualities when we were brought here, and it & amp apos s been a pursuit sin ce so to specify who we are & amp apos ( Spike Lee )Burton B. Roberts, ( July 1989 ) administrative justice of the State Supreme Court in the Bronx, New York Times ( July 1989 ) & A apos Do The Right Thing & A apos Page 2
Monday, May 20, 2019
With the introduction of less costly p last(a)ic go by company, Henri Poulenc, industrial Grinders is approach with a decision of a numerate transition from poise peal to tractile peal for their machines that would alike fit similar machines manufactured by other(a) companies. Henri Poulenc has introduced the less expensive ductile go in a small commercialize affecting 10% of industrial Grinders sales . Industrial Grinders believes the grocery entrust eventually change-over to all plastic go. Industrial Grinders must(prenominal) decide a timeline for changing let output. It is estimated that production could begin by mid-September. With piercing blade and firebrand peal already in inventory, IG must sell-off existing inventory before changing total production to all plastic rings.a. Plastic peal versus Steel RingsSteel rings last approximately 2 monthsPlastic rings last approximately 8 months100 vane rings cost $263.85 to produce100 plastic rings cost $66.60 t o produceAt a calendar weekly profit/Loss, Net income for 690 steel units would be $390.00 At a weekly profit/Loss, Net income for 172.5 plastic units would be $437.80If sales continue at 690 units per week from May to mid-September, 10,350units will live been sold, leaving 15,100 steel rings in inventory at a cost value of $39,713. This would require approximately 22 more weeks of sales to deplete inventory. As steel rings will last for two months, the sale of existing steel rings will have a faster turn- around time for continued depletion of stock. Knowing that Henri Poulenc is affecting sales in only a small portion of Industrial Grinders territory, retooling for plastics should also begin while steel rings ar being phased out. Industrial Grinders can continue to charge the same kernel, or more, for its plastic rings, as total heat Poulenc has set the standard in pricing. During the upcoming slack period, the company will employ workers at 70% of regular wages to finish al l steel production, while full-time staff completes retooling on subprogramable machines.Examine substitute theories, assumptions and ideasa. Rings account for a substantial portion of Industrial Grinders revenue. b. Plastic rings, sold by henry Poulenc, are sold for at least the same amount asIndustrial Grinders steel rings.c. Only 10% of Industrial Grinders market is affected by Henry Poulenc. d. Henry Poulenc is the only company producing plastic rings. e. Shipping cant over for plastic rings is less than steel rings. f. As plastic ring use spreads, the customer will demand the longer lasting plastic ring. g. Steel ring production will be phased out due to market demand for plastic rings.As the future production of rings inside the pains will undoubtedly change from steel to plastic, Industrial Grinders must build up out swift action to carry up with industry changes and customer needs jumping ahead of progress competition. However, pickings into consideration the 8 mo nth life of plastic rings and their lower production cost as opposed to the 2 month life of steel rings at a higher production cost, sales must increase to sustain the higher profit margin of plastic rings. stop the appropriate actions, alternatives or conclusions for the causal agentIndustrial Grinders should change to plastic ring production. As plasticrings have been introduced by competitor, Henry Poulenc, rings with a longer life will be in increasing demand by customers. Industrial Grinders must forge ahead and heavily market the plastic rings as a better product for their customers. The plastic rings are less expensive to make, less costly to enchant but have a longer life on machines. Although some revenue will be lost due to the longer life of plastic, Industrial Grinders will recoup losses with added sales.2. InventoryAnalyzing the type of the problem or federal agencyA changeover to plastic rings poses a problem for Industrial Grinders. Its inventory of special steel and inventory of produced steel rings must be dealt with before or during the production of plastic rings. a. Raw SteelThe raw steel inventory cost value is $26,444. The steel cannot be sold to another party and will have to be used or counted as a loss to the company.b. Steel RingsThe steel ring inventory cost value is $67,149. These rings could be sold within the existing market.The total cost of raw steel and steel rings inventory exceeds $93,000.00. The decision whether to use all raw steel and sell all existing steel rings becomes a major concern within Industrial Grinders management. Examine alternative theories, assumptions and ideasa. Industrial Grinders wants to change from steel rings to more cost hard-hitting plastic rings. b. Management does not want to absorb the cost of unused inventory. c. Not all management agrees on use of raw steel inventory.d. The introduction of plastic rings will spread throughout the industry. e. Industrial Grinders could produce steel rings while retooling some machines for plastic production. f. Industrial Grinders could sell existing steel rings and take a loss on raw steel. Determine the appropriate actions, alternatives or conclusions for the caseIndustrial Grinders is faced with a financial decision regarding dispositionof menstruum inventory. Believing that the future lies with the more cost effective plastic rings, IG should continue to sell existing steel ring inventory while producing further steel rings, using the raw steel inventory on hand. The works down time could use excess labor to deplete the raw steel. During this period, retooling could also occur and plastic ring production would begin. The machining changeover would be possible with a minimal cost of $1800.With Henry Poulenc affecting only 10% of IG sales, Industrial Grinders should deplete stock and introduce plastic rings. 3. Management ConcernsAnalyzing the cause or problem of the situationWithin management, it is agreed that plastic rings sho uld be produced. However, the disposition of inventory on hand is not agreed upon between sales management / engineering and plant management/ parent company management. a. sales Manager, Harry Greiner, believes inventory could be counted as a loss. Plastic production should begin and steel rings should no longer be sold. Selling both steel and plastic would be cause for market retaliation. b. Development Engineer , Anders Ericsson, is concerned about inventory not being depleted by plastic ring production in September. c. German Plant General Manager, Lawrence Bridgeman, is concerned about inventory. He believes, at the onset, that plastic rings should only be sold in markets affected by Henry Poulenc. d. raise Company Head, Hein Van Boetzalaer, agrees to plastic rings but states that IG must use inventory. Examine alternative theories, assumptions and ideasa. All but the Sales Manager are concerned about inventory cost. b. Selling plastic rings within some markets may cause stee l ring sales to slump when other customers learn of the plastic rings and their longer life. c. The raw inventory could be in production during plant down time. d. The existing steel rings could be sold while the raw steel could be accepted as a loss. e. Henry Poulenc is the only company producing plastic rings. f. IG has time within the industry to sell all existing inventory while retooling for immediate production of plastic rings. Determine the appropriate actions, alternatives or conclusions for the caseIndustrial Grinders upper management should implement the course of using and marketing the existing inventory while retooling for plastic rings. Although sales and engineering opinions are taken into account, the idea of taking a loss for inventory on hand is unacceptable in IGs current position. Henry Poulenc only affects 10% of IGs current market. Upper management must make the decision on the companys future operations. It is not proven that IGs total market must immediatel y receive plastic rings. Depleting inventory, while offering plastic rings in the affected market , is an acceptable alternative. Depleting inventory first, then changing to all plastic rings is also an acceptable alternative. However, the parent company must decide the fate of inventory and future plastic production.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Freedom of speech from the perspective of mass media, to what extend it has been practiced in Malaysia? Essay
Mass media ar means of communications (as red-hotspapers, radio, or television) that is knowing to reach the mass of the people1. Besides playing the utilisation to inform individual with currents, the media to build upher with a earph angiotensin-converting enzyme legal system and an independent judiciary is part of a triumvirate that is essential for a rise- agencying democracy2. In a democratic system of arrangement, mass media is performing a consequence of essential functions. First, they serve on schooling or surveillance function. Second, they serve an agenda-setting and interpretation function.Third, they help us to create and maintain connections with various groups in society. Fourth, they help us to kindlyize and to educate us. Fifth, they persuade us to buy certain items or wear certain ideas. Sixth, they entertain us. granting immunity is the power or just to morsel, speak or envisage surplusly. We atomic number 18 now living a media culture and its in fluence is become very pervasive. The number of hours we spend on the media is mind-boggling. Although the freedom of the media should non be in toto, yet the degree of the freedom of the media testament affect the function of the media.Citizens of countries that be democratic see media freedom as a right, not a privilege. Nevertheless, in that respect is no mention of freedom of the calf love or freedom of the electronic media in our governing body. However, freedom of media to exercise its role and functions in society has been enshrined as a fundamental human right by carriage of intelligence for the right to freedom of spoken communication, demeanor and opinion.3Pre- independenceIn 1930-1940, there are nearly 80 newspaper and magazines published in the Malay State, such as Utusan Melayu, Saudara, Warta Malaya and Majlis. In Warta Malaya, it published article that talk virtually the social and economic problems faced by the Malay. However, it did not ask for the Brit ish to be chased out. The newspaper, Majlis, discussed the political issues. Majlis not barely brings to the awakening and fights for Malays right, their office became the move into for the nationalist to meet up and exchange their thoughts.In the newspapers Saudara, there was a pillar named Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena where the Malay readers exchanged their point of view. British was worried on the development of this column and therefore took the step to overseen those who involved in the s helper column.In view of the number of events that existed during the prison term and the property whereby those newspapers are free to discussed each issues, and the f deport that the newspapers has played a vital role in the try towards independence, we can conclude that beneath the establishment of British, the media was enjoying the freedom of reference.The fairness on the freedom of speech became clearer during the clock prior to independence. Certain rectitude has been introduc ed to the Malay State. One of the fairnesss which governed the freedom of speech at that time was the insubordination title 1948. Section 4 of the twist makes it an offence to make, prepare, or to conspire, to do a seditions act, to utter refractory words, and to propagate or import all seditious universalations. Section 3 provides that a seditious end is one which tends to (a) bring hatred or contempt to the government or excite disaffection against whatever Ruler or government, (b) excite the unpolishedmen to revolt, (c) bring into hatred or contempt or excites disaffection against administration of justice, (d) raise discontent or disaffection among the countrymen, or (e) promote feelings of ill- testament and hostility amongst the inhabitants of the country.Besides, there were two ordinances specifically deal with the printed media at that time, i.e. Printing Press minute 1948 (Ord 12 of 1948) and Control of Imported Publications accomplishment 1958 (Ord 14 of 1955) . The former deal with the publisher in the Malay State while the later governing the printed temporal from different country.Those laws were limiting freedom of speech of the media at the British colonial the light of the freedom of speech only shine at the colonial since 1956, when an attempt to draft a federal official composition started. The root onations were submitted by Reid Commission in 1956-1957 Reports. In the state, there were two paragraphs provides under the title Fundamental Rights 161.A national Constitution defines and imprimaturs the right of the Federation and the states it is usual and in our opinion right that it should also define and guarantee certain fundamental individual right which are popularly regarded as essential conditions for a free and democratic way of life. The rights which are recommend should be defined and guaranteed are all firmly realized now throughout Malaysia and it may seen unnecessary to give them special defendion in the Cons titution. But we name in certain quarters vague apprehension about the future. We believe such apprehensions to be unfound, plainly there can be no objection to guaranteeing these rights paper to limited exceptions in conditions of emergency and we recommend that this should be done.. 162.our recommendations afford means of redress, readily available to any individual, against unlawful infringements of personal familiarity in any of its aspects we set ahead recommend (Art 10) that freedom of speech and ex compaction should be guaranteed to all citizens number to restrictions in the wager of security, public order or morality or in relation to exhortation, hatchet job or contempt of administration For the Malayan citizen, the objectives of those who framed the Federal Constitution were but little affected by the epidemic of human rights in the Western world4. It has been observed that the commissions recommendation on the freedom of speech has been vague, finickyly on the importance of the rights. The commission only devoted two paragraphs. The creator why it was so was clear in the paragraph itself. The draft Article 10 in our Constitution was as follow10 (1) every citizen shall see the right to freedom of speech and expression, subject to any reasonable restriction imposed by federal law in the interest of the security of the Federation, companionable traffic with other countries, public order, or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation, or exhortation to any offence.Mr. Justice Abdul Hamid on his note of dissent verbalise that the word reasonable wherever it occurs before the word restrictions in the three sub-cla routines of Article 10 should be omitted. Right to freedom of speech, assembly, and association has been guaranteed subject to restrictions which may be imposed in the interest of security of the country, public order and morality. If the Legislature imposes any restrictions in the interest of the aforesaid out comes, considering those restrictions to be reasonable, that legislation should not be challengeable in a court of law on the ground that the restrictions are not reasonable. The Legislature alone should be the forecast of what is reasonable under the circumstances. If the word reasonable is allowed to stand, every legislation on this subject will be challengeable in court on the ground that the restrictions imposed by the legislature are not reasonable.This will in many cases give rise to conflict between the views of Legislature and the views of the court on the tenability of the restrictions. To avoid a situation like that it is better to make the Legislature the judge of the reasonableness of the restrictions. If this is not done the legislatures of the country will not be sure of the state of the law which they will enact. There will always be fear that the court may h older the restrictions imposed by it to be unreasonable. The laws would be lacking in certainty. Later, when the Constitution comes into force, the Article 10 provides that (1) subject to clause (2)(a) all citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression (2) Parliament may by law impose (a) on the rights conferred by paragraph (a) of clause (1), such restrictions as it deems necessary or expedient in the interest of the security of the Federation, friendly relations with other countries, public order or morality and restrictions designed to protect the privileges of Parliament or of any legislative Assembly or to provide against contempt of courts, defamation, or incitement to any offence There are one case regarding to press reported prior to independence i.e. Public Prosecutor v. The whirl Times Press Ltd5 In this case, upon the employment of the Public Prosecutor, the Respondents, who are the proprietors of the Straits Times Press Ltd, were alleged contempt in publishing a report of the trial of tangent Seng Ann of the Straits Times dated 5 August 1948.The report appeared which, it is now admitted, was misleading and inaccurate in that it gave the impression, contrary to the facts, that the premier step in the proceedings in that case was a voluntary justification by Tan Seng Ann that he was in possession of a fire-arm and that his arrest was make solely as the result of such voluntary confession in the issue. The Notice of Motion having set out the damage of the letter complained of went on to allege inter alia that the criminal case referred to in the letter was sub judice when the letter was published in that an appeal was pending that the terms of the letter did not constitute a equitable or accurate account of the trial nor plum comment thereon and that its publication tended to prejudice the fair disposal of the proceedings and tended to bring into contempt the administration of justice by that Court.Spenser-Wilkinson J held that I would vary to follow too closely the decisions of English Courts on this subject without first considering w hether the relevant conditions in England and this country are at all similar. Quite apart from the present emergency in this country, I do not think it could be suggested that the development of the Press, the general standard of education or the com coiffure of the general public in the two countries are at all comparable and it may, therefore, be necessary to condense a stricter view here of matters which pertain to the dignity of the Courts and the impartial administration of justice than would be interpreted at the present time in England.Newly Independence (1957-1980)At this finale, Art 10 Federal Constitution has been amended twice. The first amendment was on 19636 where the words Clause (2) and (3) had been substituted for the words clause (2) of clause (1) with kernel from 16 September 1963.and the words or any part thereof were added to the Art10(2)(a). yet, clause (3) which provides that Restrictions on the right to form a associations conferred by paragraph (c) of cl ause (1) may also be imposed by any law relating to labour or education. The second amendment was made on 19717 subsequently considering the trouble of whitethorn 1969.This time, Clause (4) was added with effect from 10 March 1971. Article 10(4) provides that Parliament may pass laws prohibiting the questioning of 4 sensitive matters right to citizenship under Part III of the Constitution status of the Malay language position and privileges of the Malays and the native of Sabah and Sarawak and perquisites of the Malay Sultans and the Ruling Chiefs of Negeri Sembilan. The constitutional changes enable Parliament to amend the Sedition Act of 1948 in order to add a new definition of seditious tendency8. The amended sections were Section 3 (1) A seditious tendency is a tendency(f) To question any matter, right, status, position, privilege, sovereignty or prerogative established or protected by the edible of Part III of the Federal Constitution or Article 152, 153 or 181 of the Feder al ConstitutionSection 2seditious when apply to or utilise in respect of any act, speech, words, publication or other thing qualifies the act, speech, words, publication or other thing as one having a seditious tendency Official Secrets Act 1972 is a new law that be introduced at that time. This is the most important statute on government secrecy. The gist of the law is that official secrets cannot be received, retained, released or used without prior authorization.9 The Act is drafted in the widelyst possible terms and is not limited in its operation to spies, saboteurs, traitors and mercenaries.The term official secret is not defined in the Act. The courts sustain given the term the broadest possible definition, and on the generally accepted construction any communication pertaining to the executive would constitute an offence.10 The right to free speech can be further eclipsed by the special provisions of Art 149 and 150 relating to subversion and emergency. Art 149 authorise s legislative action designed to stop or veto subversion, organized violence and crimes prejudicial to the public.Art 150 permits any legislative action required by reason of emergency. The grounds enumerated above permitting curtailment of free speech are so broad and complete that in 49 years no Act of parliament even been found by the courts to beat violated the Constitution. Besides printed media, television was introduced in Malaysia in 1963. The television was under the control of the Department of bare (RTM). What is apparent is that television and more generally broadcast in Malaysia was form its inception closely adjust to the government. Both the RTM channel were established via decisions made by the then Alliance coalition government. Because of the circumstances at that time, there was no any specifics rule to govern the broadcasting.One of the cases that being heard at that time was Melan bin Abdullah v Public Prosecutor.11 The fact of the case was that On 6 Apri l 1971 the Utusan Melaya newspaper published a report of a talk given by given by Inche Musa Hitam, a braggart(a) Malay leader and member of Parliament, at the National Education Congress held in the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.. In the report was an editor in chiefial sub- contributeing, which in the English translation reads Abolish Tamil or Chinese medium schools in this country. The first appellant was the editor-in-chief of the Utusan Melayu,and the second appellant the author of the sub-heading inserted in the report. Sanction for their prosecution was given under s 5(1) of the Sedition Act 1948, and they were tried in due course in the special sessions court on a charge of publishing a seditious publication in contravention of s 4(1)(C) of the Sedition Act, punishable under the same section.The learned special president held the publication to be seditious, that the first appellant was responsible for all publication in the Utusan Melayu, that the second appellan t was the author of the impugned subheading, and that consequently they were both(prenominal) guilty. They were convicted and fined the sum of $500 and $1,000 respectively, in default one month and two months imprisonment, both appellant appealed. CJ Ong, on hearing of the appeal accepted the first appellant evidence that he had organised seminars and discussions, relating in particular to the sensitive issues and had instructed his staff on the relevant law as he understood it. He had sponsored a talk to journalists given on this subject in February 1971 by the Attorney General as well as the Solicitor-General. Therefore, the first respondent appeal was allowed. But the court dismissed the second respondent appeal. some other case is Public Prosecutor v Straits Times (Malaya) Bhd.12 The Public Prosecutor applied in this case for leave to issue a writ or writs of attachment for contempt of court on the respondents for publication of articles in The Straits Times. The grounds upon w hich relief was sought was that the publications of the said articles contain matters which are tendentious and constitute contempt of court, because they are prejudicing and embarrassing the applicant in the exercise of his statutory functions and also prejudicing a fair trial concerning the circumstances of the death of one Robert Lee.Abdul Hamid J held that I do not think that it is reasonable to construe these words as having any special meaning. There is no dispute that the reports do reveal that there had been an assault, a commotion and firing of a shot and that allegedly, a police police officer was involved. But these facts are not challenged. As regards the previous episode encountered by Robert Lee there is nix to show that this was not true.Further it is not uncommon for newspapers to publish matters concerning scholastic achievement of and other equitable deeds rendered by a person on his death particularly if the dead person enjoys a certain standing in the communit y or he is in one way or another related to any prominent personality. For that reason it is unreasonable to isolate certain passages from the reports and construe them unfavourably or to impute improper motive on the publisher. What may appear to be an embarrassment or prejudicial if that part is read in isolation may not be so if the reports are read as a whole taking into account the circumstances surrounding such publication particularly if it relates to a matter which will promote public sensation or a matter of unusual occurrence. The application was therefore dismissed.Malaysia under Tun Dr. Mahathir (1981-2002)Over this full stop, more laws are introduced and come into force to govern the media. In 1984, Printing Presses and Publications Act came into force on the 1st of September 1984 as a consolidating Act, and in turn repealed the Printing Presses Act 1948 and the Control of Imported Publications Act 1958. The Act is designed to regulate the use of printing, presses and the printing, importation, production, reproduction, publishing and distribution of publications and for matters connected there with.Through such control, the government uses it power to determine what it is the public has a right to know, or exactly what form freedom of speech should take13. This is an Act designed intelligibly to ensure that the press does not get out of line, imposes both a system of licensing and censorship14. Section 3 of the Act makes it mandatory to obtain a license to own a printing press. The parson has arbitrary discretion on giving, refusing, and revoking a license15. Further, judicial review of the Ministers discretion is not allowed16 and the Minister is not required to give the parties a prior hearing17.The period of the license is 12 months or shorter period as minister specifies18. This means that all publishers in this country must suffer the pangs of uncertainty about whether their permit will be renewed for the following year. There is less co ntrol of what may be written in foreign publications, controls have been exercised through deliberate delay in distribution and sometimes outright ban on their sale where officials deemed reports to be offensive or inaccurate19.In 1988, another law governing the media came into force on 1st August i.e. The Broadcasting Act 1988. The preamble to the Act states An act to provide for the control of broadcasting services and for matters connected therewith. The Act is both stringent and inflexible. It bestows terrible powers on the government to determine the type of television made available to the Malaysian public. In the thick of the supposed deregulation of broadcasting, the Act now gives the Minister of info virtually total powers to determine who will and who will not broadcast and the nature of the broadcast material.Under the Act, any potential broadcaster would neediness to apply for a licence from the minister beforehand. Later, the Act was amended on October 1996. By the a mendment, this already-stringent piece of legislation were aimed at taking into account the introduction of new services, such as cable and send television, satellite radio, pay TV and video-on demand.Due to the drastic development in the electronic media, the Legislature has to repeal the old Telecommunication Act 1950 and the Broadcasting Act 1988 and introduced a new law which is the Communications and multimedia Act 1998. The Acts breakthrough was to bring together the previously disparate industries of broadcasting, telecommunications and internet services unite under legislation and more importantly, one regulator the Communications and Multimedia commission.20 The Communication and Multimedia Act brings to the creation of Communication and Multimedia Commission Act 1998. the Communication and Multimedia Commission performing several(prenominal) functions including advising the Minister all matters concerning the national policy objectives for communication and multimedia act ivities and implementing and enforcing the provisions of the communications and multimedia law.Interestingly, Information Malaysia 1980-81 and Information Malaysia 1985 revealed that between 1981 and 1985 alone, the number of titles of local newspapers, magazines, and journals in circulation increased from 56 to 10221. However, the increase in number cannot be the proof supporting the allegation that during that time, the media was enjoying freedom of speech. There are some facts that we should not forget. In 1987, during the Operasi Lalang, a number of newspapers were closed by the government22. Later, Harakah being categorizes as publications of political parties meant for party members and there is law forbids the publication being openly sold to the public. Besides, Barisan Nasional owned and controlled major Malaysian media organization.Further, prior to Dato Seri Anwars sacking, expulsion, and detention, the editor of Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian, and the director of oper ations of TV3 were forced to resign because they were allied to Anwar. In 1990, there was a case of Aliran Kesedaran23 In this case, the respondents had applied for a permit under s 6(1) of the Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984 to print and publish in Bahasa Malaysia a magazine under the name and style of Seruan Aliran. The application was refused by the Minister of Home Affairs. The respondents applied for an order of certiorari to remove into the High Court for the purpose of quashing the decision of the Minister and for an order of writ of mandamus directing the Minister to hear and determine the application for the permit according to law. The High Court made an order quashing the decision of the Minister and ordered that the Minister shall hear and determine according to law the application for the permit.The appellant appealed. The court allowing the appeal and held that Section 12(2) of the Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984 gives the Minister of Home Affair s compulsory discretion to refuse an application for a license or permit. So unless it can be clearly established that the Minister for Home Affairs had in any way exercised his discretion wrongfully, unfairly, dishonestly or in bad faith, the High Court cannot question the discretion of the Minister. One of the significant cases during this period was the case of Irene Fernandez.The facts were that in 1995, Tenaganita released a report documenting beatings, sexual violence against detainees by prison guards, and inadequate forage and water in Malaysias immigration detention camp. Irene Fernandez was arrested and charged with malicious publication of false news under the Printing Presses and Publications Act. Magistrate Juliana Mohamed found Irene guilty and was sentence to one year imprison.Current Situation (2003-2006) amongst these periods of time, there is no any new law designed to control the media. However, recently, Government has released the Media Council Bill (2006) wh ich seeks to remediate some of the worst excess of the Printing Presses and Publications Act in regard to the local media. On varlet 4 of the Bill, it was stated AnAct to establish the Malaysian Press Council for the purpose of preserving, promoting and protecting the freedom of the Press, of maintaining and amend the ethical and professional journalistic standards of newspapers, press publications and news/press agencies in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there is fear in public that this piece of legislation will create another unnecessary public body with wide powers to curb press freedom despite its apparent duty to uphold that right. It might also act as a censorship board, only dealing with complaints against the press organisations and journalists and not against denial of freedom of expression by other entities such as ministers or organisations whose actions effectively suppress the right of freedom of expression.Besides, sway in mind that all the laws governing the media before this are still firmly in place and the main stream media also continue to be owned by interests directly or indirectly tied to the main component parties of the BN, specially UMNO and MCA.Some disasters happened during this time of period, showing to us that despite of the changes of the head of the Government, the media are not freer compared to the years before. The government shut down the Sarawak tribune for the editors made a mistake of offprint caricatures of Prophet Muhammad following Muslim protests of a Danish paper that first published them.Another incident was that the Minister of Information, Datuk Zainuddin had sought the sacking of top NST editor at a meeting of UMNOs instruction bureau because he was unhappy with the way the NST had played up certain issues such as the sacred rights of minorities and the governments policy on bumiputras.24 The government also delays in reviewing the publishing permit of the eastern Daily and censor certain news that the governme nt were not comfortable with.Moreover, the debate on 9th Malaysia contrive was given wide publicity in the media, but it was the official view and rationale for the Plan that enjoyed one-sided coverage. The leader of the opposition who spoke foe six hours on the Plan did not get any substantive coverage.25 Another issue was that Tun Dr. Mahathir had called a press conference to express his deep dismay after Datuk Seri Abdullah dismissed the crooked bridge project. However, the mainstream media hardly covered it.ConclusionsThe freedom of the media has seen become more regulatory from the time prior to independence until now. At the early sidereal day, the British Colonial has a freer media compare to the media after independence. This might be because of the British regarded the individual freedom as up most important. When came to the early day after independence, the laws being designed were more restricted. However, this was understandable as the situation at that time, where Malaysia was in an Emergency. amnesiac speech might cause riot to the nation. Therefore, the government had to take step to prevent this. In 1970-1985, there was more cases on freedom of speech, after the stand of the courts are clear in these issues, there was lesser cases.During the time frame from 1981 to 2002, many laws were designed and many existing laws were amended. Tun Dr. Mahathir tried to justify this by expression that the truth is that there is no absolute press freedom anywhere in the world, be it in a liberal democratic country or in countries governed by dictators.26 He further claimed that journalists and foreigners read a few newspapers which support the government and immediately concluded that there is no press freedom in Malaysia. This was in conjunction with his view points that Malaysian newspapers are free. But this freedom does not mean freedom to criticize the government alone. It also means freedom to support the government.27Further in Tun Dr. Mahathir speech at the national union of Journalists dinner on 15th June 1990, he stated that According to an old English proverb, power corrupt and absolute power tends to corrupt absolutely. If there are restrictions on press freedom, especially pertaining to reports on violence, sex and obscenity, then they are imposed because no one should be given absolute power. This is to prevent the possibility of absolute corruption. This constraint no way suggests there is no press freedom in Malaysia. Government leaders in this country have no absolute power. The people can change the government while the courts can reverse government decisions. Therefore, newspapers in Malaysia must accept these restrictions. This is done in the national interest and not aimed at destroying pressfreedom. It is true that freedom of the media has to be limited but over limiting will only result to a closed society.Looking at the current situation, many are thinking that the new government would promote media freed om in view of the government transparency policy. However, one should bear in mind that since Datuk Seri Abdullah took over the government until today, it was only three years passed. It is unfair to judge him at this moment. Whether or not there is free media under Datuk Seri Abdullah, we shall wait and see.Comparing to our nearest neighbor, Singapore, media in Malaysia enjoy more freedom. Singapore as a police state, the press is mobilized to explain and support the policies of the Singapore government, as an aid to development rather than assuming a counter-checking posture.In Chee Siok Chin case28, the Singapore court held that it bears emphasis that the idiomatic expression necessary or expedient confers on Parliament an extremely wide discretionary power and slow down that permits a multifarious and multifaceted approach towards achieving any of the purposes specified in Art 14(2) of the constitution. In line of business to the Indian Constitution, there can be no questioni ng of whether the Legislations are reasonable. The courts sole task, when a constitutional challenge is advanced, is to ascertain whether an impugned law is within the purview of any of the tolerable restrictions.As for electronic media, the media Corporation of Singapore, an evolution from a series of government owned broadcast Corporations, dominances the broadcasting media. 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